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Open AccessReview

Hypolipidemic Effects of β-Glucans, Mannans, and Fucoidans: Mechanism of Action and Their Prospects for Clinical Application

1
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Behavior and Neurotechnologies, Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, Timakov St. 4, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
2
Laboratory of Ultrastructural Research, Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Lymphology—Branch of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
3
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Federal Research Center, Timakov St. 2, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
4
Department of Pathology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cédric Delattre
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081819
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Effects of β-Glucan)
The search for lipid-lowering drugs is important for clinical medicine. This review summarizes our research findings regarding the hypolipidemic activity of polysaccharides. There are several validated agents altering lipid levels which reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Nonetheless, for many people, the risk of such an event remains unacceptably high despite treatment with these agents. This situation has prompted the search for new therapies to reduce the residual cardiovascular risk. The lipid-lowering effect of β-glucans consumed with food was demonstrated in patients with atherosclerosis. The mechanism of the protective effect of β-glucans is poorly studied. The effects of β-glucans are mediated by Toll-like receptors, by dectin-1, and possibly by other receptors. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the protective action of β-glucan in lipemic mice has been studied insufficiently. This review will present up-to-date information regarding experimental hypolipidemic polysaccharide compounds that hold promise for medicine. Phagocyte-specific chitotriosidase in humans contributes to innate immune responses against chitin-containing fungi. This enzyme has been first described in patients with Gaucher disease and serves as an important diagnostic biomarker. It has been reported that, in mice, chitin particles of certain size are recognized by macrophages through Toll-like receptors, dectin-1, and to a lesser extent through mannose receptor. View Full-Text
Keywords: polysaccharide; hypolipidemic effect; β-glucan; fucoidan; mannan polysaccharide; hypolipidemic effect; β-glucan; fucoidan; mannan
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Korolenko, T.A.; Bgatova, N.P.; Ovsyukova, M.V.; Shintyapina, A.; Vetvicka, V. Hypolipidemic Effects of β-Glucans, Mannans, and Fucoidans: Mechanism of Action and Their Prospects for Clinical Application. Molecules 2020, 25, 1819.

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