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Open AccessArticle

Analytical Detection of Sulfonamides and Organophosphorus Insecticide Residues in Fish in Taiwan

Department of Anesthesiology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, 1 Section, 542 Chung-Shan Road, Changhua 50008, Taiwan
Department of Psychiatry, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 4 Section, 1650 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 2 Section, 155 Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, 4 Section. 1 Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, 580 Xinmin Road, Chiayi 60054, Taiwan
Animal Drugs Inspection Branch, Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, 21 Muchang, Ciding Village, Zhunan Township, Miaoli County 35054, Taiwan
Animal Industry Division, Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, 112 Muchang, Xinhua Dist, Tainan 71246, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1 Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
Veterinary Teaching Hospital, National Chiayi University, 580 Xinmin Road, Chiayi 60054, Taiwan
Ph.D. Program of Agriculture Science, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ping-Chung Kuo
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1501;
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Drug Analysis)
Exposure to residues of antibiotics (e.g., sulfonamides) and insecticides (e.g., organophosphorus insecticides) in aquacultured food can adversely affect humans and animals and thus affect public health globally. Here, using a validated method, we examined the levels of residues of 12 sulfonamides as well as 18 organophosphorus insecticides in aquacultured fish in Taiwan. A total of 52 fish samples (i.e., 20 tilapia, 16 milk fish, and 16 perch samples) were obtained from Taiwanese aquafarms from June 2018 to October 2019. We detected 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg of sulfamethazine (a sulfonamide) in one tilapia and one milk fish, respectively, and 0.02, 0.05, and 0.03 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphorus insecticide) in one tilapia, one milk fish, and one perch, respectively; thus, among the samples, 3.85% and 5.77% contained sulfonamides and organophosphorus insecticide residues, respectively. Furthermore, we assessed human health risk based on the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of these residues: EDIs of sulfonamide and organophosphorus insecticide residues were <1.0% of the acceptable daily intake recommended by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The risk of exposure to sulfonamide and organophosphorus insecticide residue by consuming aquacultured fish in Taiwan was thus negligible, signifying no immediate health risk related to the consumption of fish. Our findings can constitute a reference in efforts geared toward ensuring food safety and monitoring veterinary drug and insecticide residue levels in aquacultured organisms. Residue levels in fish must be continually monitored to further determine possible effects of these residues on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfonamide; organophosphorus insecticide; residue; fish; risk assessment sulfonamide; organophosphorus insecticide; residue; fish; risk assessment
MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, C.-P.; Hou, P.-H.; Yang, W.-C.; Wu, C.-F.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsai, M.-Y.; Tsai, H.-P.; Lin, C.-T.; Xue, Y.-J.; Wang, J.-H.; Chang, G.-R. Analytical Detection of Sulfonamides and Organophosphorus Insecticide Residues in Fish in Taiwan. Molecules 2020, 25, 1501.

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