Next Article in Journal
Chemometrics-Assisted Identification of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds from the Green Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum var. zivo
Previous Article in Journal
Acid Properties of Hierarchical Zeolites Y
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correlations Between Trace Elements in Selected Locations of the Human Brain in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder
Article

Blood and Plasma Volumetric Absorptive Microsampling (VAMS) Coupled to LC-MS/MS for the Forensic Assessment of Cocaine Consumption

1
Department for Life Quality Studies (QuVi), Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Corso d’Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Research group of Pharmaco-Toxicological Analysis (PTA Lab), Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James Barker
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051046
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forensic Analytical Chemistry)
Reliable, feasible analytical methods are needed for forensic and anti-doping testing of cocaine and its most important metabolites, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and cocaethylene (the active metabolite formed in the presence of ethanol). An innovative workflow is presented here, using minute amounts of dried blood or plasma obtained by volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS), followed by miniaturized pretreatment by dispersive pipette extraction (DPX) and LC-MS/MS analysis. After sampling 20 µL of blood or plasma with a VAMS device, the sample was dried, extracted, and loaded onto a DPX tip. The DPX pretreatment lasted less than one minute and after elution with methanol the sample was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on a C8 column, using a mobile phase containing aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. Good extraction yield (> 85%), precision (relative standard deviation, RSD < 6.0%) and matrix effect (< 12%) values were obtained. Analyte stability was outstanding (recovery > 85% after 2 months at room temperature). The method was successfully applied to real blood and plasma VAMS, with results in very good agreement with those of fluid samples. The method seems suitable for the monitoring of concomitant cocaine and ethanol use by means of plasma or blood VAMS testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: microsampling; VAMS; LC-MS/MS; cocaine; benzoylecgonine; ecgonine methyl ester; cocaethylene; whole blood; plasma microsampling; VAMS; LC-MS/MS; cocaine; benzoylecgonine; ecgonine methyl ester; cocaethylene; whole blood; plasma
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mandrioli, R.; Mercolini, L.; Protti, M. Blood and Plasma Volumetric Absorptive Microsampling (VAMS) Coupled to LC-MS/MS for the Forensic Assessment of Cocaine Consumption. Molecules 2020, 25, 1046. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051046

AMA Style

Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Protti M. Blood and Plasma Volumetric Absorptive Microsampling (VAMS) Coupled to LC-MS/MS for the Forensic Assessment of Cocaine Consumption. Molecules. 2020; 25(5):1046. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mandrioli, Roberto, Laura Mercolini, and Michele Protti. 2020. "Blood and Plasma Volumetric Absorptive Microsampling (VAMS) Coupled to LC-MS/MS for the Forensic Assessment of Cocaine Consumption" Molecules 25, no. 5: 1046. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051046

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop