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Open AccessArticle

Gintonin-Enriched Fraction Suppresses Heat Stress-Induced Inflammation through LPA Receptor

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, CHA University, Seongnam-si 13488, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
2
Ginsentology Research Laboratory and Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Deok-Chun Yang
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051019
Received: 10 January 2020 / Revised: 20 February 2020 / Accepted: 21 February 2020 / Published: 25 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
Heat stress can be caused by various environmental factors. When exposed to heat stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction occur due to an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. In particular, inflammatory responses induced by heat stress are common in muscle cells, which are the most exposed to heat stress and directly affected. Gintonin-Enriched Fraction (GEF) is a non-saponin component of ginseng, a glycolipoprotein. It is known that it has excellent neuroprotective effects, therefore, we aimed to confirm the protective effect against heat stress by using GEF. C2C12 cells were exposed to high temperature stress for 1, 12 and 15 h, and the expression of signals was analyzed over time. Changes in the expression of the factors that were observed under heat stress were confirmed at the protein level. Exposure to heat stress increases phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and increases expression of inflammatory factors such as NLRP3 inflammasome through lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. Activated inflammatory signals also increase the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 18 (IL-18). Also, expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase related to oxidative stress is increased. However, it was confirmed that the changes due to the heat stress were suppressed by the GEF treatment. Therefore, we suggest that GEF helps to protect heat stress in muscle cell and prevent tissue damage by oxidative stress and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginseng; gintonin; gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF); C2C12 cell; heat stress; inflammation ginseng; gintonin; gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF); C2C12 cell; heat stress; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chei, S.; Song, J.-H.; Oh, H.-J.; Lee, K.; Jin, H.; Choi, S.-H.; Nah, S.-Y.; Lee, B.-Y. Gintonin-Enriched Fraction Suppresses Heat Stress-Induced Inflammation through LPA Receptor. Molecules 2020, 25, 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051019

AMA Style

Chei S, Song J-H, Oh H-J, Lee K, Jin H, Choi S-H, Nah S-Y, Lee B-Y. Gintonin-Enriched Fraction Suppresses Heat Stress-Induced Inflammation through LPA Receptor. Molecules. 2020; 25(5):1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chei, Sungwoo; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Oh, Hyun-Ji; Lee, Kippeum; Jin, Heegu; Choi, Sun-Hye; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Lee, Boo-Yong. 2020. "Gintonin-Enriched Fraction Suppresses Heat Stress-Induced Inflammation through LPA Receptor" Molecules 25, no. 5: 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051019

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