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Open AccessArticle

Honey as Source of Nitrogen Compounds: Aromatic Amino Acids, Free Nucleosides and Their Derivatives

Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, ul. Borowska 211a, 50-556 Wrocław, Poland
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040847 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 January 2020 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
The content of selected major nitrogen compounds including nucleosides and their derivatives was evaluated in 75 samples of seven varieties of honey (heather, buckwheat, black locust, goldenrod, canola, fir, linden) by targeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector - high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-QqTOF-MS) and determined by UHPLC-DAD. The honey samples contained nucleosides, nucleobases and their derivatives (adenine: 8.9 to 18.4 mg/kg, xanthine: 1.2 to 3.3 mg/kg, uridine: 17.5 to 51.2 mg/kg, guanosine: 2.0 to 4.1 mg/kg; mean amounts), aromatic amino acids (tyrosine: 7.8 to 263.9 mg/kg, phenylalanine: 9.5 to 64.1 mg/kg; mean amounts). The amounts of compounds significantly differed between some honey types. For example, canola honey contained a much lower amount of uridine (17.5 ± 3.9 mg/kg) than black locust where it was most abundant (51.2 ± 7.8 mg/kg). The presence of free nucleosides and nucleobases in different honey varieties is reported first time and supports previous findings on medicinal activities of honey reported in the literature as well as traditional therapy and may contribute for their explanation. This applies, e.g., to the topical application of honey in herpes infections, as well as its beneficial activity on cognitive functions as nootropic and neuroprotective, in neuralgia and is also important for the understanding of nutritional values of honey. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential and non-essential nutrients; nucleosides; honey composition; uridine; neuropharmacological activities essential and non-essential nutrients; nucleosides; honey composition; uridine; neuropharmacological activities
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Kuś, P.M. Honey as Source of Nitrogen Compounds: Aromatic Amino Acids, Free Nucleosides and Their Derivatives. Molecules 2020, 25, 847.

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