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Open AccessArticle

Cytotoxic Action of Artemisinin and Scopoletin on Planktonic Forms and on Biofilms of Candida Species

1
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pécs, Medical School, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság u. 13., Hungary
2
János Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság u. 20., Hungary
3
Department of General and Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Biology, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6., Hungary
4
Microbial Biotechnology Research Group, János Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság u. 20., Hungary
5
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Pécs, Faculty of Pharmacy, 7624 Pécs, Rókus u. 2, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030476
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Properties of Natural Products)
We investigated the antifungal activities of purified plant metabolites artemisinin (Ar) and scopoletin (Sc) including inhibition, effects on metabolic activities, viability, and oxidative stress on planktonic forms and on preformed biofilms of seven Candida species. The characteristic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of Ar and Sc against Candida species ranged from 21.83–142.1 µg/mL and 67.22–119.4 µg/mL, respectively. Drug concentrations causing ≈10% CFU decrease within 60 min of treatments were also determined (minimum effective concentration, MEC10) using 100-fold higher CFUs than in the case of MIC90 studies. Cytotoxic effects on planktonic and on mature biofilms of Candida species at MEC10 concentrations were further evaluated with fluorescent live/dead discrimination techniques. Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Candida parapsilosis were the species most sensitive to Ar and Sc. Ar and Sc were also found to promote the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing oxidative stress at their respective MEC10 concentrations against the tested planktonic Candida species. Ar and Sc possess dose-dependent antifungal action but the underlying mechanism type (fungistatic and fungicidal) is not clear yet. Our data suggest that Ar and Sc found in herbal plants might have potential usage in the fight against Candida biofilms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida species; artemisinin; scopoletin; oxidative stress; mature biofilm; antifungal effect Candida species; artemisinin; scopoletin; oxidative stress; mature biofilm; antifungal effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Das, S.; Czuni, L.; Báló, V.; Papp, G.; Gazdag, Z.; Papp, N.; Kőszegi, T. Cytotoxic Action of Artemisinin and Scopoletin on Planktonic Forms and on Biofilms of Candida Species. Molecules 2020, 25, 476.

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