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Possible Transmission Flow of SARS-CoV-2 Based on ACE2 Features

Department of Mathematics, Pingla Thana Mahavidyalaya, Maligram 721140, India
Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009, India
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical Research (ACBR), University of Delhi (North Campus), Delhi 110007, India
Applied Statistics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108, West Bengal, India
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Yarmouk University-Faculty of Pharmacy, Irbid 566, Jordan
Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
PanTherapeutics, Rte de Lavaux 49, CH1095 Lutry, Switzerland
Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), SE-123 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Doctoral studies in natural and technical sciences (SPL 44), University of Vienna, 1010 Wien, Austria
Italian Agency for Development Cooperation—Khartoum, Sudan Street 33, Al Amarat, Khartoum 825109, Sudan
Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 77030, USA
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia 61519, Egypt
Applied Biology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India
Department of Biochemistry, Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Telangana 500022, India
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK
Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, Bihar 800005, India
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Translational Laboratory in Molecular Physiology, Centre for Experimental Surgery, College of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941901, Brazil
Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
Biomaterials and Bioengineering Lab, Translational Research Centre San Alberto Magno, Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Mártir, c/Guillem de Castro 94, 46001 Valencia, Spain
School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey 64849, Nuevo León, Mexico
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Via Gabelli 63, 35121 Padova, Italy
Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5906;
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 December 2020 / Published: 13 December 2020
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is engendering the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 binds to the three sub-domains viz. amino acids (aa) 22–42, aa 79–84, and aa 330–393 of ACE2 on human cells to initiate entry. It was reported earlier that the receptor utilization capacity of ACE2 proteins from different species, such as cats, chimpanzees, dogs, and cattle, are different. A comprehensive analysis of ACE2 receptors of nineteen species was carried out in this study, and the findings propose a possible SARS-CoV-2 transmission flow across these nineteen species. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACE2; viral spike receptor-binding domain; SARS-CoV-2; transmission; bioinformatics ACE2; viral spike receptor-binding domain; SARS-CoV-2; transmission; bioinformatics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hassan, S.S.; Ghosh, S.; Attrish, D.; Choudhury, P.P.; Aljabali, A.A.A.; Uhal, B.D.; Lundstrom, K.; Rezaei, N.; Uversky, V.N.; Seyran, M.; Pizzol, D.; Adadi, P.; Soares, A.; El-Aziz, T.M.A.; Kandimalla, R.; Tambuwala, M.M.; Azad, G.K.; Sherchan, S.P.; Baetas-da-Cruz, W.; Takayama, K.; Serrano-Aroca, Á.; Chauhan, G.; Palu, G.; Brufsky, A.M. Possible Transmission Flow of SARS-CoV-2 Based on ACE2 Features. Molecules 2020, 25, 5906.

AMA Style

Hassan SS, Ghosh S, Attrish D, Choudhury PP, Aljabali AAA, Uhal BD, Lundstrom K, Rezaei N, Uversky VN, Seyran M, Pizzol D, Adadi P, Soares A, El-Aziz TMA, Kandimalla R, Tambuwala MM, Azad GK, Sherchan SP, Baetas-da-Cruz W, Takayama K, Serrano-Aroca Á, Chauhan G, Palu G, Brufsky AM. Possible Transmission Flow of SARS-CoV-2 Based on ACE2 Features. Molecules. 2020; 25(24):5906.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hassan, Sk. Sarif, Shinjini Ghosh, Diksha Attrish, Pabitra Pal Choudhury, Alaa A. A. Aljabali, Bruce D. Uhal, Kenneth Lundstrom, Nima Rezaei, Vladimir N. Uversky, Murat Seyran, Damiano Pizzol, Parise Adadi, Antonio Soares, Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz, Ramesh Kandimalla, Murtaza M. Tambuwala, Gajendra Kumar Azad, Samendra P. Sherchan, Wagner Baetas-da-Cruz, Kazuo Takayama, Ángel Serrano-Aroca, Gaurav Chauhan, Giorgio Palu, and Adam M. Brufsky. 2020. "Possible Transmission Flow of SARS-CoV-2 Based on ACE2 Features" Molecules 25, no. 24: 5906.

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