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Plant Xyloglucan Xyloglucosyl Transferases and the Cell Wall Structure: Subtle but Significant

1
Institute of Chemistry, Centre for Glycomics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-84538 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Comenius University, Mlynská Dolina, SK-84215 Bratislava, Slovakia
3
School of Life Science, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai’an 223300, China
4
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: László Somsák
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5619; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235619
Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 29 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Carbohydrate–Protein Interactions)
Plant xyloglucan xyloglucosyl transferases or xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XET; EC 2.4.1.207) catalogued in the glycoside hydrolase family 16 constitute cell wall-modifying enzymes that play a fundamental role in the cell wall expansion and re-modelling. Over the past thirty years, it has been established that XET enzymes catalyse homo-transglycosylation reactions with xyloglucan (XG)-derived substrates and hetero-transglycosylation reactions with neutral and charged donor and acceptor substrates other than XG-derived. This broad specificity in XET isoforms is credited to a high degree of structural and catalytic plasticity that has evolved ubiquitously in algal, moss, fern, basic Angiosperm, monocot, and eudicot enzymes. These XET isoforms constitute gene families that are differentially expressed in tissues in time- and space-dependent manners during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we discuss the current state of knowledge of broad specific plant XET enzymes and how their inherently carbohydrate-based transglycosylation reactions tightly link with structural diversity that underlies the complexity of plant cell walls and their mechanics. Based on this knowledge, we conclude that multi- or poly-specific XET enzymes are widespread in plants to allow for modifications of the cell wall structure in muro, a feature that implements the multifaceted roles in plant cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzyme structure and function; GH16 family; homo- and hetero-transglycosylation reactions; molecular modelling and simulations; plant cell walls loosening and re-modelling enzyme structure and function; GH16 family; homo- and hetero-transglycosylation reactions; molecular modelling and simulations; plant cell walls loosening and re-modelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stratilová, B.; Kozmon, S.; Stratilová, E.; Hrmova, M. Plant Xyloglucan Xyloglucosyl Transferases and the Cell Wall Structure: Subtle but Significant. Molecules 2020, 25, 5619. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235619

AMA Style

Stratilová B, Kozmon S, Stratilová E, Hrmova M. Plant Xyloglucan Xyloglucosyl Transferases and the Cell Wall Structure: Subtle but Significant. Molecules. 2020; 25(23):5619. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235619

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stratilová, Barbora; Kozmon, Stanislav; Stratilová, Eva; Hrmova, Maria. 2020. "Plant Xyloglucan Xyloglucosyl Transferases and the Cell Wall Structure: Subtle but Significant" Molecules 25, no. 23: 5619. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235619

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