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Review

The Role of Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Selenium in Immune System against COVID-19

by 1 and 2,*
1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Interdisciplinary Program in Senior Human Ecology, BK21 FOUR, College of Natural Sciences, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140, Korea
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, BK21 FOUR, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5346; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225346
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 11 November 2020 / Accepted: 12 November 2020 / Published: 16 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Immune Function)
Low levels of micronutrients have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes during viral infections. Therefore, to maximize the nutritional defense against infections, a daily allowance of vitamins and trace elements for malnourished patients at risk of or diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be beneficial. Recent studies on COVID-19 patients have shown that vitamin D and selenium deficiencies are evident in patients with acute respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D improves the physical barrier against viruses and stimulates the production of antimicrobial peptides. It may prevent cytokine storms by decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Selenium enhances the function of cytotoxic effector cells. Furthermore, selenium is important for maintaining T cell maturation and functions, as well as for T cell-dependent antibody production. Vitamin C is considered an antiviral agent as it increases immunity. Administration of vitamin C increased the survival rate of COVID-19 patients by attenuating excessive activation of the immune response. Vitamin C increases antiviral cytokines and free radical formation, decreasing viral yield. It also attenuates excessive inflammatory responses and hyperactivation of immune cells. In this mini-review, the roles of vitamin C, vitamin D, and selenium in the immune system are discussed in relation to COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; infectious disease; selenium; virus; vitamin C; vitamin D COVID-19; infectious disease; selenium; virus; vitamin C; vitamin D
MDPI and ACS Style

Bae, M.; Kim, H. The Role of Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Selenium in Immune System against COVID-19. Molecules 2020, 25, 5346. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225346

AMA Style

Bae M, Kim H. The Role of Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Selenium in Immune System against COVID-19. Molecules. 2020; 25(22):5346. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225346

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bae, Minkyung, and Hyeyoung Kim. 2020. "The Role of Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Selenium in Immune System against COVID-19" Molecules 25, no. 22: 5346. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225346

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