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Review

Astaxanthin and its Effects in Inflammatory Responses and Inflammation-Associated Diseases: Recent Advances and Future Directions

by 1,2,3,* and 1
1
State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Disease Control, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
2
Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sokcheon Pak and Soo Liang Ooi
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5342; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225342
Received: 24 October 2020 / Revised: 8 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 16 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Immune Function)
Astaxanthin is a natural lipid-soluble and red-orange carotenoid. Due to its strong antioxidant property, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and immune modulation, astaxanthin has gained growing interest as a multi-target pharmacological agent against various diseases. In the current review, the anti-inflammation mechanisms of astaxanthin involved in targeting for inflammatory biomarkers and multiple signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT, Nrf2, NF-κB, ERK1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK, and JAK-2/STAT-3, have been described. Furthermore, the applications of anti-inflammatory effects of astaxanthin in neurological diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, hepatic and renal diseases, eye and skin disorders, are highlighted. In addition to the protective effects of astaxanthin in various chronic and acute diseases, we also summarize recent advances for the inconsistent roles of astaxanthin in infectious diseases, and give our view that the exact function of astaxanthin in response to different pathogen infection and the potential protective effects of astaxanthin in viral infectious diseases should be important research directions in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; oxidative stress; anti-inflammatory; inflammation-associated diseases astaxanthin; oxidative stress; anti-inflammatory; inflammation-associated diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, M.X.; Xiong, F. Astaxanthin and its Effects in Inflammatory Responses and Inflammation-Associated Diseases: Recent Advances and Future Directions. Molecules 2020, 25, 5342. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225342

AMA Style

Chang MX, Xiong F. Astaxanthin and its Effects in Inflammatory Responses and Inflammation-Associated Diseases: Recent Advances and Future Directions. Molecules. 2020; 25(22):5342. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225342

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Ming X., and Fan Xiong. 2020. "Astaxanthin and its Effects in Inflammatory Responses and Inflammation-Associated Diseases: Recent Advances and Future Directions" Molecules 25, no. 22: 5342. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225342

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