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Open AccessArticle

Preparation and Characterisation of Activated Carbon from Palm Mixed Waste Treated with Trona Ore

1
Centre for Thermal Energy and Materials, School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
2
Cranfield Soil and Agrifood Institute, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: João Valente Nabais
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5028; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215028
Received: 2 October 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Activated Carbons—Production and Applications)
This study explores the use of a novel activating agent and demonstrates the production and characterisation of activated carbon (AC) from a combine palm waste (CPW) in 3:2:1 proportion by weight of empty fruit bunch, mesocarp fibre and palm kernel shell. The resulting biomass was processed by a microwave-assisted method using trona and compared with material produced by conventional routes. These results demonstrate the potential of trona ore as an activating agent and the effectiveness of using a combined palm waste for a single stream activation process. It also assesses the effectiveness of trona ore in the elimination of alcohol, acids and aldehydes; with a focus on increasing the hydrophilicity of the resultant AC. The optimum results for the conventional production technique at 800 °C yielded a material with SBET 920 m2/g, Vtotal 0.840 cm3/g, a mean pore diameter of 2.2 nm and an AC yield 40%. The optimum outcome of the microwave assisted technique for CPW was achieved at 600 W, SBET is 980 m2/g; Vtotal 0.865 cm3/g; a mean pore diameter 2.2 nm and an AC yield of 42%. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed that palm waste can be combined to produce AC and that trona ore has the capacity to significantly enhance biomass activation. View Full-Text
Keywords: activated carbon; activating agent; agricultural residues; microwave activation; oil palm waste; trona ore activated carbon; activating agent; agricultural residues; microwave activation; oil palm waste; trona ore
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ukanwa, K.S.; Patchigolla, K.; Sakrabani, R.; Anthony, E. Preparation and Characterisation of Activated Carbon from Palm Mixed Waste Treated with Trona Ore. Molecules 2020, 25, 5028.

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