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Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytochemicals from Honey against COVID-19: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Future Directions

1
Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13133, Jordan
3
Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11472, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Neurosciences, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Université de Lorraine, CNRS, UMR 7365, IMoPA, F-54000 Nancy, France
7
Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Laboratoire d’Immunologie, F-54000 Nancy, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simone Carradori
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5017; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215017
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently put the world under stress, resulting in a global pandemic. Currently, there are no approved treatments or vaccines, and this severe respiratory illness has cost many lives. Despite the established antimicrobial and immune-boosting potency described for honey, to date there is still a lack of evidence about its potential role amid COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the previously explored antiviral effects and phytochemical components of honey, we review here evidence for its role as a potentially effective natural product against COVID-19. Although some bioactive compounds in honey have shown potential antiviral effects (i.e., methylglyoxal, chrysin, caffeic acid, galangin and hesperidinin) or enhancing antiviral immune responses (i.e., levan and ascorbic acid), the mechanisms of action for these compounds are still ambiguous. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work exclusively summarizing all these bioactive compounds with their probable mechanisms of action as antiviral agents, specifically against SARS-CoV-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; 2019-nCoV; antiviral agent; antiviral activity; antiviral immunity SARS-CoV-2; 2019-nCoV; antiviral agent; antiviral activity; antiviral immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Hatamleh, M.A.I.; Hatmal, M.M.; Sattar, K.; Ahmad, S.; Mustafa, M.Z.; Bittencourt, M.D.C.; Mohamud, R. Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytochemicals from Honey against COVID-19: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Future Directions. Molecules 2020, 25, 5017. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215017

AMA Style

Al-Hatamleh MAI, Hatmal MM, Sattar K, Ahmad S, Mustafa MZ, Bittencourt MDC, Mohamud R. Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytochemicals from Honey against COVID-19: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Future Directions. Molecules. 2020; 25(21):5017. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Hatamleh, Mohammad A.I., Ma’mon M. Hatmal, Kamran Sattar, Suhana Ahmad, Mohd Z. Mustafa, Marcelo D.C. Bittencourt, and Rohimah Mohamud. 2020. "Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytochemicals from Honey against COVID-19: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Future Directions" Molecules 25, no. 21: 5017. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215017

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