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Open AccessArticle

Anthocyanin Metabolites in Human Urine after the Intake of New Functional Beverages

Phytochemistry and Healthy Foods Lab. Group of Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods. Department of Food Science and Technology, (CEBAS-CSIC), University Campus Espinardo 25, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM), Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus de los Jerónimos, Guadalupe, 30107 Murcia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pedro Mena
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 371;
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
Sugar intake abuse is directly related with the increase of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and insulin resistance. Along this line, the development of new beverages using alternative sweeteners could help with combatting the pathophysiological disorders associated to the consumption of sugar. To provide evidence on this issue, in the present work, the bioavailability of anthocyanins was evaluated after the acute ingestion of a new maqui-citrus-based functional beverage rich in polyphenols, and supplemented with a range of sweeteners including sucrose (natural high caloric), stevia (natural non-caloric), and sucralose (artificial non-caloric), as an approach that would allow reducing the intake of sugars while providing bioactive phenolic compounds (anthocyanins). This approach allowed the evaluation of the maximum absorption and the diversity of metabolites excreted through urine. The beverages created were ingested by volunteers (n = 20) and the resulting anthocyanin metabolites in their urine were analyzed by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 29 degradation metabolites were detected: Caffeic acid, catechol, 3,4-dihidroxifenilacetic acid, hippuric acid, trans-ferulic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, trans-isoferulic acid, and vanillic acid derivatives, where peak concentrations were attained at 3.5 h after beverage intake. Sucralose was the sweetener that provided a higher bioavailability for most compounds, followed by stevia. Sucrose did not provide a remarkably higher bioavailability of any compounds in comparison with sucralose or stevia. The results propose two sweetener alternatives (sucralose and stevia) to sucrose, an overused high calorie sweetener that promotes some metabolic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intervention; maqui; juice; anthocyanins; bioavailability; UHPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS dietary intervention; maqui; juice; anthocyanins; bioavailability; UHPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS
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Agulló, V.; Villaño, D.; García-Viguera, C.; Domínguez-Perles, R. Anthocyanin Metabolites in Human Urine after the Intake of New Functional Beverages. Molecules 2020, 25, 371.

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