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Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Citrate-Stabilized Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

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Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kroener-Fresenius-Stiftung-Professorship, Universitätsklinikum, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
2
Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 98693 Ilmenau, Germany
3
Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ashok Kakkar
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194425
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 24 September 2020 / Published: 26 September 2020
Surface-functionalized gold-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Au-SPIONs) may be a useful tool in various biomedical applications. To obtain Au-SPIONs, gold salt was precipitated onto citrate-stabilized SPIONs (Cit-SPIONs) using a simple, aqueous one-pot technique inspired by the Turkevich method of gold nanoparticle synthesis. By the further stabilization of the Au-SPION surface with additional citrate (Cit-Au-SPIONs), controllable and reproducible Z-averages enhanced long-term dispersion stability and moderate dispersion pH values were achieved. The citrate concentration of the reaction solution and the gold/iron ratio was found to have a major influence on the particle characteristics. While the gold-coating reduced the saturation magnetization to 40.7% in comparison to pure Cit-SPIONs, the superparamagnetic behavior of Cit-Au-SPIONs was maintained. The formation of nanosized gold on the SPION surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Cit-Au-SPION concentrations of up to 100 µg Fe/mL for 48 h had no cytotoxic effect on Jurkat cells. At a particle concentration of 100 µg Fe/mL, Jurkat cells were found to take up Cit-Au-SPIONs after 24 h of incubation. A significantly higher attachment of thiol-containing L-cysteine to the particle surface was observed for Cit-Au-SPIONs (53%) in comparison to pure Cit-SPIONs (7%). View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs); gold coating; thiol-binding; surface functionalization; characterization; cytotoxicity nanoparticles; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs); gold coating; thiol-binding; surface functionalization; characterization; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stein, R.; Friedrich, B.; Mühlberger, M.; Cebulla, N.; Schreiber, E.; Tietze, R.; Cicha, I.; Alexiou, C.; Dutz, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Unterweger, H. Synthesis and Characterization of Citrate-Stabilized Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications. Molecules 2020, 25, 4425. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194425

AMA Style

Stein R, Friedrich B, Mühlberger M, Cebulla N, Schreiber E, Tietze R, Cicha I, Alexiou C, Dutz S, Boccaccini AR, Unterweger H. Synthesis and Characterization of Citrate-Stabilized Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications. Molecules. 2020; 25(19):4425. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194425

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stein, René, Bernhard Friedrich, Marina Mühlberger, Nadine Cebulla, Eveline Schreiber, Rainer Tietze, Iwona Cicha, Christoph Alexiou, Silvio Dutz, Aldo R. Boccaccini, and Harald Unterweger. 2020. "Synthesis and Characterization of Citrate-Stabilized Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications" Molecules 25, no. 19: 4425. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194425

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