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Article

LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations

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Department of botany, School of Biological Sciences, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi P.O. Box 30197-00100, Kenya
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Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Nairobi P.O. Box 20412-00200, Kenya
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Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi P.O. Box 30197-00100, Kenya
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Central Analytical Facilities (CAF), Stellenbosch University, JC Smuts Building, Van Der Byl Rd, Stellenbosch Central, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
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Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Dall’Acqua
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4130; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184130
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 23 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, i.e., D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5,7,4′,5′-tetrahydroxy-3,6,2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid lactone (3) and catechin (4) were the most active compounds followed by the extract from the coastal (Gazi) population. The clustering pattern of the five populations of D. viscosa suggested that the metabolite profiles were influenced by geo-environmental conditions and did not support the current classification of D. viscosa based on morphology. This study disputes the current classification of D. viscosa in Kenya and recommends revision using tools such as molecular phylogenetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dodonaea viscosa; African traditional medicine; antimicrobial activity; chemosystematics; hopbush; metabolomics; natural products chemistry; phenolics; terpenoids Dodonaea viscosa; African traditional medicine; antimicrobial activity; chemosystematics; hopbush; metabolomics; natural products chemistry; phenolics; terpenoids
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3957948
    Description: Characterisation of four isolated chemicals of D. viscosa via nuclear magnetic resonance
MDPI and ACS Style

Kaigongi, M.M.; Lukhoba, C.W.; Ochieng‘, P.J.; Taylor, M.; Yenesew, A.; Makunga, N.P. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations. Molecules 2020, 25, 4130. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184130

AMA Style

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Ochieng‘ PJ, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations. Molecules. 2020; 25(18):4130. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184130

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaigongi, Magrate M., Catherine W. Lukhoba, Purity J. Ochieng‘, Malcolm Taylor, Abiy Yenesew, and Nokwanda P. Makunga 2020. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations" Molecules 25, no. 18: 4130. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184130

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