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Article

Production and Characterization of Antioxidative Hydrolysates and Peptides from Corn Gluten Meal Using Papain, Ficin, and Bromelain

Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Atanassova
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4091; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184091
Received: 13 August 2020 / Revised: 30 August 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 7 September 2020
There has been a growing interest in developing natural antioxidants with high efficiency and low cost. Bioactive protein hydrolysates could be a potential source of natural and safer antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to hydrolyze corn gluten meal using three plant-derived proteases, namely papain, ficin, and bromelain, to produce antioxidative hydrolysates and peptides and to characterize the antioxidant performances using both chemical assays and a ground meat model. The optimum hydrolysis time for papain was 3 h, and for ficin and bromelain was 4 h. The hydrolysates were further separated by sequential ultrafiltration to 5 hydrolysate fractions named F1 to F5 from low molecular weight (MW) (<1 kDa) to high MW range (>10 kDa), which were further characterized for TPC, free radical scavenging capacity against DPPH and ABTS, and metal chelating activity. The fraction F4 produced by papain (CH-P4), F1 produced by ficin (CH-F1), and F3 produced by bromelain (CH-B3) showed the strongest antioxidant activity and yield, respectively. These three fractions were incorporated into ground pork to determine their inhibition effects on lipid oxidation during a 16-day storage period. The inhibition effect was enhanced with the addition of higher amount of hydrolysate (e.g., 1000 vs. 500 mg/kg). The CH-P4 reduced lipid oxidation in ground meat by as much as 30.45%, and CH-B3 reduced oxidation by 27.2% at the same level, but the inhibition was only 13.83% with 1000 mg/kg of CH-F1. The study demonstrated that CGM protein hydrolysates and peptides could be used as naturally derived antioxidant in retarding lipid oxidation and improving product storage stability. View Full-Text
Keywords: corn gluten meal; protein hydrolysates; papain; ficin; bromelain; antioxidants; lipid oxidation corn gluten meal; protein hydrolysates; papain; ficin; bromelain; antioxidants; lipid oxidation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, R.; Chen, G.; Li, Y. Production and Characterization of Antioxidative Hydrolysates and Peptides from Corn Gluten Meal Using Papain, Ficin, and Bromelain. Molecules 2020, 25, 4091. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184091

AMA Style

Hu R, Chen G, Li Y. Production and Characterization of Antioxidative Hydrolysates and Peptides from Corn Gluten Meal Using Papain, Ficin, and Bromelain. Molecules. 2020; 25(18):4091. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184091

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Ruijia, Gengjun Chen, and Yonghui Li. 2020. "Production and Characterization of Antioxidative Hydrolysates and Peptides from Corn Gluten Meal Using Papain, Ficin, and Bromelain" Molecules 25, no. 18: 4091. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184091

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