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Article

The Effect of Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Its Mixtures on Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, and Inhibitions of the Key Enzymes Relevant to Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
2
Food and Nutrition Academic and Research Cluster, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
3
Plant Varieties Protection Division, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
4
National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency(NSTDA), Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
5
Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jianbo Xiao
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3713; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163713
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food)
Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has long been used as a food source and ingredient for traditional herbal remedies. Plant parts contain neuroprotective agents that interact with specific targets to inhibit Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Organic solvents including methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, and n-butanol, are widely employed for extraction of sacred lotus but impact food safety. Seed embryo, flower stalk, stamen, old leaf, petal, and leaf stalk of sacred lotus were extracted using hot water (aqueous extraction). The extractions were analyzed for their bioactive constituents, antioxidant and anti-AD properties as key enzyme inhibitory activities toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-secretase 1 (BACE-1). Results showed that the sacred lotus stamen exhibited significant amounts of phenolics, including phenolic acids and flavonoids, that contributed to high antioxidant activity via both single electron transfer (SET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms, with anti-AChE, anti-BChE, and anti-BACE-1 activities. To enhance utilization of other sacred lotus parts, a combination of stamen, old leaf and petal as the three sacred lotus plant components with the highest phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and enzyme inhibitory properties was analyzed. Antagonist interaction was observed, possibly from flavonoids–flavonoids interaction. Further in-depth elucidation of this issue is required. Findings demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the stamen has potential for application as a functional food to mitigate the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nelumbo nucifera; sacred lotus; phenolics; antioxidant activities; Alzheimer’s disease; enzyme inhibitory properties Nelumbo nucifera; sacred lotus; phenolics; antioxidant activities; Alzheimer’s disease; enzyme inhibitory properties
MDPI and ACS Style

Temviriyanukul, P.; Sritalahareuthai, V.; Promyos, N.; Thangsiri, S.; Pruesapan, K.; Srinuanchai, W.; Nuchuchua, O.; Siriwan, D.; On-nom, N.; Suttisansanee, U. The Effect of Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Its Mixtures on Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, and Inhibitions of the Key Enzymes Relevant to Alzheimer’s Disease. Molecules 2020, 25, 3713. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163713

AMA Style

Temviriyanukul P, Sritalahareuthai V, Promyos N, Thangsiri S, Pruesapan K, Srinuanchai W, Nuchuchua O, Siriwan D, On-nom N, Suttisansanee U. The Effect of Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Its Mixtures on Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, and Inhibitions of the Key Enzymes Relevant to Alzheimer’s Disease. Molecules. 2020; 25(16):3713. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163713

Chicago/Turabian Style

Temviriyanukul, Piya, Varittha Sritalahareuthai, Natnicha Promyos, Sirinapa Thangsiri, Kanchana Pruesapan, Wanwisa Srinuanchai, Onanong Nuchuchua, Dalad Siriwan, Nattira On-nom, and Uthaiwan Suttisansanee. 2020. "The Effect of Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Its Mixtures on Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, and Inhibitions of the Key Enzymes Relevant to Alzheimer’s Disease" Molecules 25, no. 16: 3713. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163713

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