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Open AccessArticle

Localization of (+)-Catechin in Picea abies Phloem: Responses to Wounding and Fungal Inoculation

1
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production Systems Unit, Tietotie 2, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba 305-8687, Japan
3
Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O.B 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
4
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Forestry and Horticulture, 123 Huntington Street, P.O. B 1106, New Haven, CT 06504-1106, USA
5
Åbo Akademi University, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Center, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500 Turku, Finland
6
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources Unit, Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
7
Nagoya University, Department of Forest and Environmental Resources Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122952
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tannin Analysis, Chemistry, and Functions)
To understand the positional and temporal defense mechanisms of coniferous tree bark at the tissue and cellular levels, the phloem topochemistry and structural properties were examined after artificially induced bark defense reactions. Wounding and fungal inoculation with Endoconidiophora polonica of spruce bark were carried out, and phloem tissues were frequently collected to follow the temporal and spatial progress of chemical and structural responses. The changes in (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, stilbene glucoside, and resin acid distribution, and accumulation patterns within the phloem, were mapped using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (cryo-ToF-SIMS), alongside detailed structural (LM, TEM, SEM) and quantitative chemical microanalyses of the tissues. Our results show that axial phloem parenchyma cells of Norway spruce contain (+)-catechins, the amount of which locally increases in response to fungal inoculation. The preformed, constitutive distribution and accumulation patterns of (+)-catechins closely follow those of stilbene glucosides. Phloem phenolics are not translocated but form a layered defense barrier with oleoresin compounds in response to pathogen attack. Our results suggest that axial phloem parenchyma cells are the primary location for (+)-catechin storage and synthesis in Norway spruce phloem. Chemical mapping of bark defensive metabolites by cryo-ToF-SIMS, in addition to structural and chemical microanalyses of the defense reactions, can provide novel information on the local amplitudes and localizations of chemical and structural defense mechanisms and pathogen–host interactions of trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: axial phloem parenchyma; defense response; fungal inoculation; morphological changes; phenolics; tannins; tissue-specific chemical mapping axial phloem parenchyma; defense response; fungal inoculation; morphological changes; phenolics; tannins; tissue-specific chemical mapping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jyske, T.; Kuroda, K.; Keriö, S.; Pranovich, A.; Linnakoski, R.; Hayashi, N.; Aoki, D.; Fukushima, K. Localization of (+)-Catechin in Picea abies Phloem: Responses to Wounding and Fungal Inoculation. Molecules 2020, 25, 2952. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122952

AMA Style

Jyske T, Kuroda K, Keriö S, Pranovich A, Linnakoski R, Hayashi N, Aoki D, Fukushima K. Localization of (+)-Catechin in Picea abies Phloem: Responses to Wounding and Fungal Inoculation. Molecules. 2020; 25(12):2952. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122952

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jyske, Tuula; Kuroda, Katsushi; Keriö, Susanna; Pranovich, Andrey; Linnakoski, Riikka; Hayashi, Noriko; Aoki, Dan; Fukushima, Kazuhiko. 2020. "Localization of (+)-Catechin in Picea abies Phloem: Responses to Wounding and Fungal Inoculation" Molecules 25, no. 12: 2952. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122952

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