The discovery of antibiotics has created a turning point in medical interventions to pathogenic infections, but unfortunately, each discovery was consistently followed by the emergence of resistance. The rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria has generated a great challenge to treat infections caused by bacteria with the available antibiotics. Today, research is active in finding new treatments for multidrug-resistant pathogens. In a step to guide the efforts, the WHO has published a list of the most dangerous bacteria that are resistant to current treatments and requires the development of new antibiotics for combating the resistance. Among the list are various Gram-positive bacteria that are responsible for serious healthcare and community-associated infections. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium
, and drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
are of particular concern. The resistance of bacteria is an evolving phenomenon that arises from genetic mutations and/or acquired genomes. Thus, antimicrobial resistance demands continuous efforts to create strategies to combat this problem and optimize the use of antibiotics. This article aims to provide a review of the most critical resistant Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, their mechanisms of resistance, and the new treatments and approaches reported to circumvent this problem.
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