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Article

On the Ferroelectric to Paraelectric Structural Transition of BaTiO3 Micro-/Nanoparticles and Their Epoxy Nanocomposites

1
Smart Materials & Nanodielectrics Laboratory, Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
2
Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Division of Engineering Materials, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
3
Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE-HT), 26504 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tilo Soehnel
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2686; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112686
Received: 10 April 2020 / Revised: 31 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dielectric Materials: Challenges and Prospects)
BaTiO3 is one of the most widely used ceramic components in capacitor formulation due to its exceptional ferroelectric properties. The structural transition from the ferroelectric tetragonal to the paraelectric cubic phase has been studied in both nano- and micro-BaTiO3 particles. Several experimental techniques were employed for characterization purposes (X-ray diffraction-XRD, laser Raman spectroscopy-LRS, differential scanning calorimetry-DSC and broadband dielectric spectroscopy-BDS). All gave evidence for the structural transition from the polar tetragonal to the non-polar cubic phase in both nano- and micro-BaTiO3 particles. Variation of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) with temperature in XRD peaks was employed for the determination of the critical Curie temperature (Tc). In micro-BaTiO3 particles (Tc) lies close to 120 °C, while in nanoparticles the transition is complicated due to the influence of particles’ size. Below (Tc) both phases co-exist in nanoparticles. (Tc) was also determined via the temperature dependence of FWHM and found to be 115 °C. DSC, LRS and BDS provided direct results, indicating the transition in both nano- and micro-BaTiO3 particles. Finally, the 15 parts per hundred resin per weight (phr) BaTiO3/epoxy nanocomposite revealed also the transition through the peak formation at approximately 130 °C in the variation of FWHM with temperature. The present work introduces, for the first time, a qualitative tool for the determination and study of the ferroelectric to paraelectric structural transition in both nano- and micro-ferroelectric particles and in their nanocomposites. Moreover, its novelty lies on the effect of crystals’ size upon the ferroelectric to the paraelectric phase transition and its influence on physical properties of BaTiO3. View Full-Text
Keywords: BaTiO3 particles; polarazition; ferroelectric to paraelectric transition; Curie temperature; Raman spectroscopy; dielectric response BaTiO3 particles; polarazition; ferroelectric to paraelectric transition; Curie temperature; Raman spectroscopy; dielectric response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Manika, G.C.; Andrikopoulos, K.S.; Psarras, G.C. On the Ferroelectric to Paraelectric Structural Transition of BaTiO3 Micro-/Nanoparticles and Their Epoxy Nanocomposites. Molecules 2020, 25, 2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112686

AMA Style

Manika GC, Andrikopoulos KS, Psarras GC. On the Ferroelectric to Paraelectric Structural Transition of BaTiO3 Micro-/Nanoparticles and Their Epoxy Nanocomposites. Molecules. 2020; 25(11):2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Manika, Georgia C., Konstantinos S. Andrikopoulos, and Georgios C. Psarras 2020. "On the Ferroelectric to Paraelectric Structural Transition of BaTiO3 Micro-/Nanoparticles and Their Epoxy Nanocomposites" Molecules 25, no. 11: 2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112686

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