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Open AccessArticle

Comparative Evaluation of Essential Oils from Medicinal-Aromatic Plants of Greece: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Fish Pathogens

1
Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, 71500 Heraklion, Greece
2
Institute of Plant Breeding and Genetic Resources, Hellenic Agricultural Organization Demeter, P.O. Box 60458, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010148
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 30 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents II)
The administration of antibiotics in aquaculture has raised concern about the impact of their overuse in marine ecosystems, seafood safety and consumers’ health. This “green consumerism” has forced researchers to find new alternatives against fish pathogens. The present study focused on 12 Mediterranean medicinal-aromatic plants as potential antimicrobials and antioxidant agents that could be used in fish aquaculture. In vitro assays showed that the essential oils (EOs) from all studied plants had anti-bacterial and antioxidant properties, with their efficacy being dependent on their chemical composition. More specifically, EOs rich in carvacrol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene exhibited not only the strongest inhibitory activity against the growth of bacterial pathogens (inhibitory concentration: 26–88 μg mL−1), but also the greatest total antioxidant capacity (ABTS: 2591–5879 μmole mL−1; CUPRAC: 931–2733 μmole mL−1). These compounds were mainly found in the EOs from Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Spanish oregano (Thymbra capitata) and savoury (Satureja thymbra) collected from cultivations in Greece. The specific EOs stand out as promising candidates for the treatment of bacterial diseases and oxidative stress in farmed fish. Further in vivo experiments are needed to fully understand the effects of EO dietary supplementation on fish farming processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: carvacrol; γ-terpinene; Gram-negative; p-cymene; plant extracts carvacrol; γ-terpinene; Gram-negative; p-cymene; plant extracts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anastasiou, T.I.; Mandalakis, M.; Krigas, N.; Vézignol, T.; Lazari, D.; Katharios, P.; Dailianis, T.; Antonopoulou, E. Comparative Evaluation of Essential Oils from Medicinal-Aromatic Plants of Greece: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Fish Pathogens. Molecules 2020, 25, 148. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010148

AMA Style

Anastasiou TI, Mandalakis M, Krigas N, Vézignol T, Lazari D, Katharios P, Dailianis T, Antonopoulou E. Comparative Evaluation of Essential Oils from Medicinal-Aromatic Plants of Greece: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Fish Pathogens. Molecules. 2020; 25(1):148. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010148

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anastasiou, Thekla I.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Krigas, Nikos; Vézignol, Thomas; Lazari, Diamanto; Katharios, Pantelis; Dailianis, Thanos; Antonopoulou, Efthimia. 2020. "Comparative Evaluation of Essential Oils from Medicinal-Aromatic Plants of Greece: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Fish Pathogens" Molecules 25, no. 1: 148. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010148

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