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Evaluation of Transition Metal Catalysts in Electrochemically Induced Aromatic Phosphonation

Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, 420088 Kazan, Russia
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Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091823
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Electrochemistry 2019)
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Abstract

Voltammetry provides important information on the redox properties of catalysts (transition metal complexes of Ni, Co, Mn, etc.) and their activity in electrocatalytic reactions of aromatic C–H phosphonation in the presence of a phosphorus precursor, for example, dialkyl-H-phosphonate. Based on catalytic current growth of oxidation or reduction of the metal catalysts (CoII, MnII, NiII, MnII/NiII, MnII/CoII, and CoII/NiII), quantitative characteristics of the regeneration of catalysts were determined, for example, for MnII, NiII and MnII/NiII, CoII/NiII pairs. Calculations confirmed the previously made synthetic observations on the synergistic effect of certain metal ions in binary catalytic systems (MnIIbpy/NiIIbpy and NiIIbpy/CoIIbpy); for mixtures, the observed rate constants, or TOF, were 690 s−1 and 721 s−1, respectively, and product yields were higher for monometallic catalytic systems (up to 71% for bimetallic catalytic systems and ~30% for monometallic catalytic systems). In some cases, the appearance of pre-waves after adding H-phosphonates confirmed the preceding chemical reaction. It also confirmed the formation of metal phosphonates in the time scale of voltammetry, oxidizing or reducing at lower potentials than the original (RO)2P(O)H and metal complex, which could be used for fast diagnostics of metal ion and dialkyl-H-phosphonate interactions. Electrochemical transfer of an electron to (from) metal phosphonate generates a phosphonyl radical, which can then react with different arenes to give the products of aromatic C–H phosphonation. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocatalysis; phosphonation; rate constants; cyclic voltammetry; C–H functionalization; metal complex electrocatalysis; phosphonation; rate constants; cyclic voltammetry; C–H functionalization; metal complex
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Strekalova, S.; Khrizanforov, M.; Budnikova, Y. Evaluation of Transition Metal Catalysts in Electrochemically Induced Aromatic Phosphonation. Molecules 2019, 24, 1823.

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