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Open AccessArticle

Identification and Determination of Seven Phenolic Acids in Brazilian Green Propolis by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and HPLC

1
Science and Technology Centre, By-Health Co. Ltd., No. 3 Kehui 3rd Street, No. 99 Kexue Avenue Central, Science City, Luogang District, Guangzhou 510000, China
2
School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: In-Soo Yoon and Hyun-Jong Cho
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091791
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Method Development and Validation in Food and Pharmaceutical Analysis)
Brazilian green propolis is a complex mixture of natural compounds that is difficult to analyze and standardize; as a result, controlling its quality is challenging. In this study, we used the positive and negative modes of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography for the identification and characterization of seven phenolic acid compounds in Brazilian green propolis. The optimal operating conditions for the electrospray ionization source were capillary voltage of 3500 V and drying and sheath gas temperatures of 320 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Drying and sheath gas flows were set to 8 L/min and 11 L/min, respectively. Brazilian green propolis was separated using the HPLC method, with chromatograms for samples and standards measured at 310 nm. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS was used to identify the following phenolic compounds: Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), and artepillin C. Using a methodologically validated HPLC method, the seven identified phenolic acids were then quantified among different Brazilian green propolis. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in the content of a given phenolic acid across different Brazilian green propolis samples, owing to the same plant resin sources for each sample. Isochlorogenic acid B had the lowest content (0.08 ± 0.04) across all tested Brazilian green propolis samples, while the artepillin C levels were the highest (2.48 ± 0.94). The total phenolic acid content across Brazilian green propolis samples ranged from 2.14–9.32%. Notably, artepillin C quantification is an important factor in determining the quality index of Brazilian green propolis; importantly, it has potential as a chemical marker for the development of better quality control methods for Brazilian green propolis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brazilian green propolis; phenolic acids; UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS; HPLC; quantitation; methodological verification Brazilian green propolis; phenolic acids; UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS; HPLC; quantitation; methodological verification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, S.; Liu, M.; He, J.; Li, K.; Zhang, X.; Yin, G. Identification and Determination of Seven Phenolic Acids in Brazilian Green Propolis by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and HPLC. Molecules 2019, 24, 1791.

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