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Open AccessArticle

Towards Understanding of Polymorphism of the G-rich Region of Human Papillomavirus Type 52

by Maja Marušič 1 and Janez Plavec 1,2,3,*
1
Slovenian NMR Center, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
EN-FIST Center of Excellence, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara N. Richter
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071294
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 31 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue G-quadruplex and Microorganisms)
The potential to affect gene expression via G-quadruplex stabilization has been extended to all domains of life, including viruses. Here, we investigate the polymorphism and structures of G-quadruplexes of the human papillomavirus type 52 with UV, CD and NMR spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. We show that oligonucleotide with five G-tracts folds into several structures and that naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have profound effects on the structural polymorphism in the context of G-quadruplex forming propensity, conformational heterogeneity and folding stability. With help of SNP analysis, we were able to select one of the predominant forms, formed by G-rich sequence d(G3TAG3CAG4ACACAG3T). This oligonucleotide termed HPV52(1–4) adopts a three G-quartet snap back (3 + 1) type scaffold with four syn guanine residues, two edgewise loops spanning the same groove, a no-residue V loop and a propeller type loop. The first guanine residue is incorporated in the central G-quartet and all four-guanine residues from G4 stretch are included in the three quartet G-quadruplex core. Modification studies identified several structural elements that are important for stabilization of the described G-quadruplex fold. Our results expand set of G-rich targets in viral genomes and address the fundamental questions regarding folding of G-rich sequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: G-quadruplex; NMR; folding; DNA; structure; human papillomaviruses G-quadruplex; NMR; folding; DNA; structure; human papillomaviruses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marušič, M.; Plavec, J. Towards Understanding of Polymorphism of the G-rich Region of Human Papillomavirus Type 52. Molecules 2019, 24, 1294.

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