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Royal Jelly Ameliorates Behavioral Deficits, Cholinergic System Deficiency, and Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

1
Comparative medical Research Institute, Experimental Animal Research Center, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China
2
College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Yuhangtang Road 866, Hangzhou 310058, China
3
The third clinical medical college, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061149
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bee Products: From Molecules to Human Health)
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Abstract

Estrogen deficiency after menopause is associated with autonomic nervous changes, leading to memory impairment and increased susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has estrogenic activity. Here, we investigated whether RJ can improve behavior, cholinergic and autonomic nervous function in ovariectomized (OVX) cholesterol-fed rabbits. OVX rabbits on high-cholesterol diet were administered with RJ for 12 weeks. The results showed that RJ could significantly improve the behavioral deficits of OVX cholesterol-fed rabbits and image structure of the brain. RJ reduced body weight, blood lipid, as well as the levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ), acetylcholinesterase (AchE), and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the brain. Moreover, RJ also increased the activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, and enhanced heart rate variability (HRV) and Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in OVX cholesterol-fed rabbits. Furthermore, RJ was also shown to reduce the content of Evans blue and the expression levels of Aβ, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1), and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and increase the expression level of LDL(low density lipoprotein) receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) in the brain. Our findings suggested that RJ has beneficial effects in neurological disorders of postmenopausal women, which were associated with reducing cholesterol and Aβ deposition, enhancing the estrogen levels and the activities of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and ameliorating the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability and restoring autonomic nervous system. View Full-Text
Keywords: royal jelly; cholinergic; autonomic nervous system; menopause; Alzheimer’s disease; bee products royal jelly; cholinergic; autonomic nervous system; menopause; Alzheimer’s disease; bee products
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pan, Y.; Xu, J.; Jin, P.; Yang, Q.; Zhu, K.; You, M.; Hu, F.; Chen, M. Royal Jelly Ameliorates Behavioral Deficits, Cholinergic System Deficiency, and Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits. Molecules 2019, 24, 1149.

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