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Open AccessReview

Endogenous and Exogenous Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems for Programmed Site-Specific Release

1
School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China
4
Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey CP 64849, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Il Kim
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061117
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Materials)
In this study, we reviewed state-of-the-art endogenous-based and exogenous-based stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (DDS) for programmed site-specific release to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapeutic modalities. This particular work focuses on the smart chemistry and mechanism of action aspects of several types of stimuli-responsive polymeric carriers that play a crucial role in extracellular and intracellular sections of diseased tissues or cells. With ever increasing scientific knowledge and awareness, research is underway around the globe to design new types of stimuli (external/internal) responsive polymeric carriers for biotechnological applications at large and biomedical and/or pharmaceutical applications, in particular. Both external/internal and even dual/multi-responsive behavior of polymeric carriers is considered an essential element of engineering so-called ‘smart’ DDS, which controls the effective and efficient dose loading, sustained release, individual variability, and targeted permeability in a sophisticated manner. So far, an array of DDS has been proposed, developed, and implemented. For instance, redox, pH, temperature, photo/light, magnetic, ultrasound, and electrical responsive DDS and/or all in all dual/dual/multi-responsive DDS (combination or two or more from any of the above). Despite the massive advancement in DDS arena, there are still many challenging concerns that remain to be addressed to cover the research gap. In this context, herein, an effort has been made to highlight those concerning issues to cover up the literature gap. Thus, the emphasis was given to the drug release mechanism and applications of endogenous and exogenous based stimuli-responsive DDS in the clinical settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: stimuli-responsive; polymeric carriers; endogenous; exogenous; drug delivery; nanotechnology; biomedical applications stimuli-responsive; polymeric carriers; endogenous; exogenous; drug delivery; nanotechnology; biomedical applications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raza, A.; Rasheed, T.; Nabeel, F.; Hayat, U.; Bilal, M.; Iqbal, H.M.N. Endogenous and Exogenous Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems for Programmed Site-Specific Release. Molecules 2019, 24, 1117.

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