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Molecules 2019, 24(5), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050970

Comparison of Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolics and Their Bioactivities in Three Organs of Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides

College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Qinghuadonglu No. 35, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China
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Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
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Abstract

Dried flower buds of Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides have long been used as herbs in numerous Chinese traditional medicines. Comparisons of three phenolic fractions (i.e., free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolics) in three different organs (i.e., flower, leaf, and stem) of the two species revealed that the free phenolics were the highest in terms of total phenol and total flavonoid content, composed of the most numerous phenolics and flavonoids; thus, they exhibited the most excellent antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)), as well as protective effects on DNA damage induced by free radicals. In identical free and esterified phenolics of a same organ, higher contents and bioactivities were observed in L. macranthoides than in L. japonica. Phenolics identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector, alongside tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD–QTOF-MS/MS) mainly included chlorogenic acid and its five derivatives, three flavonoids that were only found in the free phenolic fraction and closely correlated with its bioactivity, and caffeic acid that was the major contributor to antioxidant activity of the esterified and insoluble-bound phenolic fractions. It was, thus, concluded that, like L. japonica, L. macranthoides, which was underestimated since being separately listed by the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is also a good (and better) herbal medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lonicera japonica; Lonicera macranthoides; phenolics; antioxidant activity; DNA protection; UPLC-DAD–QTOF-MS/MS Lonicera japonica; Lonicera macranthoides; phenolics; antioxidant activity; DNA protection; UPLC-DAD–QTOF-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yu, M.; Yang, L.; Xue, Q.; Yin, P.; Sun, L.; Liu, Y. Comparison of Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolics and Their Bioactivities in Three Organs of Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides. Molecules 2019, 24, 970.

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