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Open AccessArticle

The Proanthocyanidin-Rich Fraction Obtained from Red Rice Germ and Bran Extract Induces HepG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis

1
Anticarcinogenesis and Apoptosis Research Cluster, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
3
Center for Research and Development of Natural Products for Health, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Efferth
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040813
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Herbal Medicine Research)
This study aims to determine the anti-carcinogenic effects of the proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRFR) obtained from red rice germ and bran extract on HepG2 cells. The PRFR obtained from red rice germ and bran extract could reduce the cell viability of HepG2 cells as shown by the IC50 value at 20 µg/mL. Notably, PRFR concentrations at 20 and 40 µg/mL significantly increased the number of cells in the G2/M phase from 25.7% ± 1.4%in the control group to 36.2% ± 3.4% (p < 0.01) and 48.9% ± 2.6% (p < 0.0001), respectively, suggesting that the cells were arrested in this phase, which was confirmed by the reduction of survival proteins, including cyclin B1 and cdc25. Moreover, the PRFR at 20 and 40 µg/mL could induce cell death via the apoptosis cascade, indicated by the percentage of total apoptotic cells from 9.9% ± 3.1% in the control group to 41.1 ± 3.9 (p < 0.0001) and 82.2% ± 5.8% (p < 0.0001), respectively. This was clarified by increasing apoptotic proteins (such as cleaved PARP-1, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3) and decreasing anti-apoptotic protein survivin without p53 alterations. These results demonstrated that the PRFR obtained from red rice germ and bran extract could inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells via survivin, which could potentially serve as a new target for cancer therapeutics making it an excellent “lead candidate” molecule for in vivo proof-of concept studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: proanthocyanidin; red rice germ and bran extract; apoptosis; hepatocellular carcinoma proanthocyanidin; red rice germ and bran extract; apoptosis; hepatocellular carcinoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Upanan, S.; Yodkeeree, S.; Thippraphan, P.; Punfa, W.; Wongpoomchai, R.; Limtrakul (Dejkriengkraikul), P. The Proanthocyanidin-Rich Fraction Obtained from Red Rice Germ and Bran Extract Induces HepG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis. Molecules 2019, 24, 813.

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