Endometriosis represents a severe gynecological pathology, defined by implantation of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. This pathology affects almost 15% of women during reproductive age and has a wide range of consequences. In affected women, infertility has a 30% rate of prevalence and endometriosis implants increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Despite long periods of studies and investigations, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease still remain not fully understood. Initially, endometriosis was related to retrograde menstruation, but new theories have been launched, suggesting that chronic inflammation can influence the development of endometriosis because inflammatory mediators have been identified elevated in patients with endometriosis, specifically in the peritoneal fluid. The importance of dietary phytochemicals and their effect on different inflammatory diseases have been highlighted, and nowadays more and more studies are focused on the analysis of nutraceuticals. Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen, a natural polyphenolic compound with antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory actions, found in many dietary sources such as grapes, wine, peanuts, soy, berries, and stilbenes. Resveratrol possesses a significant anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and it has been proved that resveratrol can exhibit apoptosis-inducing activities. From the studies reviewed in this paper, it is clear that the anti-inflammatory effect of this natural compound can contribute to the prevention of endometriosis, this phenolic compound now being considered a new innovative drug in the prevention and treatment of this disease.
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