Acid-washed activated carbon (AC-A), nitric acid modified activated carbon (AC-NO2
), aminated activated carbon (AC-NH2
) and cerium-loaded activated carbon (Ce/AC) were prepared and characterized by BET procedure, Boehm titration and SEM. Their performances were investigated for the ozonation of p-chlorobenzoic acid (p-CBA) in its solution and organic compounds in reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). Nitration and amination had little effect on the surface area of catalyst, but increased the concentration of surface acid and basic functional group respectively. After loading Ce, the surface area of the catalyst decreased, and amount of Ce particles were agglomerated on the surface of activated carbon. All the four catalysts can improve the removal rate of the organics in water. Among the four catalysts, Ce/AC shows the highest catalytic activity. The removal rates of p-CBA, TOC and three target pollutants (e.g., tetracycline, metoprolol, atrazine) are 99.6%, 70.38%, 97.76%, 96.21% and 96.03%, respectively. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) was proved to be the core of catalytic reaction mechanism for Ce/AC, with the contribution rate to p-CBA removal of 91.4%. The surface groups and the Ce loaded on AC were the initiator for the rapid generation of ·OH. Electron transfer between electron-rich structures and cerium oxide might be a synergistic effect that can increase catalytic activity of Ce loaded on AC. Catalytic ozonation with Ce/AC is a promising ROC treatment technology due to its efficiency and possibilities for improvement.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited