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Open AccessArticle

Catalytic Ozonation of Organics in Reverse Osmosis Concentrate with Catalysts Based on Activated Carbon

1
School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
2
School of Chemistry & Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
3
Beijing Shuimengyuan Water Science and Technology Co. LTD, Beijing 100019, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fernando J. Beltrán Novillo and Pedro M. Álvarez
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4365; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234365
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 23 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Applications of Catalytic Ozonation)
Acid-washed activated carbon (AC-A), nitric acid modified activated carbon (AC-NO2), aminated activated carbon (AC-NH2) and cerium-loaded activated carbon (Ce/AC) were prepared and characterized by BET procedure, Boehm titration and SEM. Their performances were investigated for the ozonation of p-chlorobenzoic acid (p-CBA) in its solution and organic compounds in reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). Nitration and amination had little effect on the surface area of catalyst, but increased the concentration of surface acid and basic functional group respectively. After loading Ce, the surface area of the catalyst decreased, and amount of Ce particles were agglomerated on the surface of activated carbon. All the four catalysts can improve the removal rate of the organics in water. Among the four catalysts, Ce/AC shows the highest catalytic activity. The removal rates of p-CBA, TOC and three target pollutants (e.g., tetracycline, metoprolol, atrazine) are 99.6%, 70.38%, 97.76%, 96.21% and 96.03%, respectively. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) was proved to be the core of catalytic reaction mechanism for Ce/AC, with the contribution rate to p-CBA removal of 91.4%. The surface groups and the Ce loaded on AC were the initiator for the rapid generation of ·OH. Electron transfer between electron-rich structures and cerium oxide might be a synergistic effect that can increase catalytic activity of Ce loaded on AC. Catalytic ozonation with Ce/AC is a promising ROC treatment technology due to its efficiency and possibilities for improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: catalytic ozonation; reverse osmosis concentrate; activated carbon; cerium catalytic ozonation; reverse osmosis concentrate; activated carbon; cerium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Xia, Z.; Li, L.; Huang, Q.; He, C.; Wang, J. Catalytic Ozonation of Organics in Reverse Osmosis Concentrate with Catalysts Based on Activated Carbon. Molecules 2019, 24, 4365.

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