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G-Quadruplex-Forming Aptamers—Characteristics, Applications, and Perspectives
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Aptamers: A Review of Their Chemical Properties and Modifications for Therapeutic Application

1
RIBOMIC Inc., Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0071, Japan
2
The institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Cerchia
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4229; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234229
Received: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamers: Successes, Limitations and Future Directions)
Aptamers are short, single-stranded oligonucleotides that bind to specific target molecules. The shape-forming feature of single-stranded oligonucleotides provides high affinity and excellent specificity toward targets. Hence, aptamers can be used as analogs of antibodies. In December 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first aptamer-based therapeutic, pegaptanib (Macugen), targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Since then, however, no aptamer medication for public health has appeared. During these relatively silent years, many trials and improvements of aptamer therapeutics have been performed, opening multiple novel directions for the therapeutic application of aptamers. This review summarizes the basic characteristics of aptamers and the chemical modifications available for aptamer therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamer; RNA therapeutics; chemical modifications; conformational plasticity aptamer; RNA therapeutics; chemical modifications; conformational plasticity
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Adachi, T.; Nakamura, Y. Aptamers: A Review of Their Chemical Properties and Modifications for Therapeutic Application. Molecules 2019, 24, 4229.

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