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Open AccessArticle

Accession-Level Differentiation of Urushiol Levels, and Identification of Cardanols in Nascent Emerged Poison Ivy Seedlings

1
School of Plant and Environmental Science, Virginia Tech, 220 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida, 255 Hull Road, Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0690, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4213; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234213
Received: 27 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze) shows accession-level differentiation in a variety of morphometric traits, suggesting local adaptation. To investigate whether the presumed defense compound urushiol also demonstrates accession-level accumulation differences, in vitro nascent germinated poison ivy seedlings from geographically isolated populations were germinated in vitro and then assayed for known urushiol congener accumulation levels. Significant accession-level differences in the accumulation levels of total C15- and C17-, total C15-, total C17-, specific C15 congeners, and specific C17 congeners of urushiol were identified. In addition, hereto novel C15- and C17-urushiol isomers were identified as well. Cardanols are assumed to be the penultimate metabolites giving rise to urushiols, but this assumption was not previously empirically validated. C15-cardanol congeners and isomers corresponding to expected substrates needed to produce the observed C15-urushiol congeners and isomers were identified in the same poison ivy seedling extracts. Total C15-cardanol and C15-cardanol congeners also showed significant accession-level differences. Based on the observed C15-cardanol congeners in poison ivy, the penultimate step in urushiol biosynthesis was proposed to be a cardanol-specific hydroxylase activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: poison ivy; Toxicodendron radicans; urushiol; cardanol; and cardanol hydroxylase poison ivy; Toxicodendron radicans; urushiol; cardanol; and cardanol hydroxylase
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Lott, A.A.; Baklajian, E.R.; Dickinson, C.C.; Collakova, E.; Jelesko, J.G. Accession-Level Differentiation of Urushiol Levels, and Identification of Cardanols in Nascent Emerged Poison Ivy Seedlings. Molecules 2019, 24, 4213.

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