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Open AccessArticle

Essential Oil Composition of Ruta graveolens L. Fruits and Hyssopus officinalis Subsp. aristatus (Godr.) Nyman Biomass as a Function of Hydrodistillation Time

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Department of Botany and Agrometeorology, Agricultural University, Mendeleev 12, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
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Research and Development Station for Aquaculture and Aquatic Ecology, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iaşi, Romania
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Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, PO Box 550, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
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Crop and Soil Science Department, Oregon State University, 3050 SW Campus Way, 109 Crop Science Building, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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Plant Genetic Research Group, AgroBioInstitute, Agricultural Academy, 8 Dragan Tsankov blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4047; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224047
Received: 18 October 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
The aim of this study was to establish the kinetics regression models for yield and composition of Ruta graveolens fruit and Hyssopus officinalis subsp. aristatus aboveground biomass essential oil (EO), collected at different time intervals during the hydrodistillation process. The hypothesis was that collecting the EO fractions during specific time frames may result in EOs with dissimilar composition that may have differential use by the industry. Furthermore, we calculated the kinetics regression models for the composition of EO, isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. The EO yield of R. graveolens fruits was 0.39% (relative area % of GC-FID chromatogram), with major constituents in the Control fraction (0–90 min) being 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, and 2-undecanol, representing 65% of the total oil. The highest concentration of 2-nonanone (60%) was found in the 30–60 min oil fraction, the concentration of 2-undecanone (35%) was highest in the Control (0–90 min) fraction, and the concentration of eucalyptol (19%) was highest in the 5–10 min fraction. The EO yield of H. officinalis subsp. aristatus dried biomass was 1.12%. The major constituents in the Control fraction (0–90 min) of H. officinalis biomass were eucalyptol, α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, and cis-3-pinanone, representing 86% of the total. Eucalyptol (58%) was the highest in the 0–5 min fraction. The highest β-pinene (15%) and cis-3-pinanone (20%) contents were found in the 20–40 min fraction. The kinetics regression models that were developed for EO composition of R. graveolens were second-order polynominal, Michaelis–Menten, and Exponential decay, while for EO composition of H. officinalis subsp. aristatus biomass were Exponential decay and Power. The results from this study could benefit the EO industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; 2-nonanone; 2-undecanone; eucalyptol; β-pinene; cis-3-pinanone essential oils; 2-nonanone; 2-undecanone; eucalyptol; β-pinene; cis-3-pinanone
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Semerdjieva, I.B.; Burducea, M.; Astatkie, T.; Zheljazkov, V.D.; Dincheva, I. Essential Oil Composition of Ruta graveolens L. Fruits and Hyssopus officinalis Subsp. aristatus (Godr.) Nyman Biomass as a Function of Hydrodistillation Time. Molecules 2019, 24, 4047.

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