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Open AccessArticle

Extraction, Characterization, Antitumor and Immunological Activities of Hemicellulose Polysaccharide from Astragalus radix Herb Residue

1
Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
2
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering Ministry, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
3
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
4
Shanxi Fruit Industry Work Station, Taiyuan 030001, China
5
Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China
6
Shanxi Jianshuo Food and Drug Research Institute Co. Ltd., Taiyuan 030000, China
7
Shanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan 030000, China
8
Institute of process engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3644; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203644
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Astragalus radix (radix) have been frequently used for clinical application in China, and the herb residues of radix turn out to be a waste of resources. To escape from this, the medicine value of radix herb residues is mined in this article. We isolated hemicellulose polysaccharide AX-I-3b from radix herb residues by fractional extraction. Monosaccharide-composition analysis revealed that AX-I-3b consisted of arabinose, xylose, and glucose with a molar ratio of 10.4:79.3:1.1. Methylation, NMR and FT-IR analyses showed that AX-I-3b monosaccharide residue was linked as follows: →2,3,4)-β-d-Xylp-(1→, →4)-β-d-Arap-(1→, →4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→. Then, we found that AX-I-3b exhibited antitumor activity against lung cancer in vitro and vivo through MTT assay and xenograft tumor model. Mechanistically, AX-I-3b induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells and xenograft tumors, which is evidenced by the up-regulation of p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Moreover, AX-I-3b synergistically improved the therapeutic ability of cisplatin in xenograft tumors model. Furthermore, AX-I-3b treatment effectively improved the immune organ index, the percentage of spleen lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels in lung cancer mice, supporting that AX-I-3b showed immunomodulatory activity. In conclusion, our results identified AX-I-3b as an antitumor and immunomodulatory agent, providing a new insight into the reutilization of radix herb residue. View Full-Text
Keywords: Astragalus radix herb residue; hemicellulose polysaccharide; characterization; antitumor; immunomodulatory Astragalus radix herb residue; hemicellulose polysaccharide; characterization; antitumor; immunomodulatory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, K.; Li, S.; Wang, D.; Li, X.; Wu, X.; Liu, X.; Du, G.; Li, X.; Qin, X.; Du, Y. Extraction, Characterization, Antitumor and Immunological Activities of Hemicellulose Polysaccharide from Astragalus radix Herb Residue. Molecules 2019, 24, 3644.

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