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Molecules 2019, 24(2), 334;

Perspectives on the Use of Liquid Extraction for Radioisotope Purification

Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Via Luigi Borsari, 46-44121 Ferrara, Italy
Legnaro National Laboratories, Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), Viale dell’Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
Zaiput Flow Technologies, 300 2nd Avenue, Waltham, MA 02451, USA
ANSTO Minerals, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, 169 Longhard Bangsaen, Saensook, Muang, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
ANSTO National Research Cyclotron, 81 Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, 94 Mallett St, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Licia Uccelli, Alessandra Boschi and Petra Martini
Received: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [3798 KB, uploaded 18 January 2019]   |  


The reliable and efficient production of radioisotopes for diagnosis and therapy is becoming an increasingly important capability, due to their demonstrated utility in Nuclear Medicine applications. Starting from the first processes involving the separation of 99mTc from irradiated materials, several methods and concepts have been developed to selectively extract the radioisotopes of interest. Even though the initial methods were based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) approaches, the perceived difficulty in automating such processes has slowly moved the focus towards resin separation methods, whose basic chemical principles are often similar to the LLE ones in terms of chelators and phases. However, the emerging field of flow chemistry allows LLE to be easily automated and operated in a continuous manner, resulting in an even improved efficiency and reliability. In this contribution, we will outline the fundamentals of LLE processes and their translation into flow-based apparatuses; in addition, we will provide examples of radioisotope separations that have been achieved using LLE methods. This article is intended to offer insights about the future potential of LLE to purify medically relevant radioisotopes. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction; radioisotopes; radiometals; nuclear medicine; purification; separation liquid-liquid extraction; radioisotopes; radiometals; nuclear medicine; purification; separation

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Martini, P.; Adamo, A.; Syna, N.; Boschi, A.; Uccelli, L.; Weeranoppanant, N.; Markham, J.; Pascali, G. Perspectives on the Use of Liquid Extraction for Radioisotope Purification. Molecules 2019, 24, 334.

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