Next Article in Journal
Induction of Cell Death in Human A549 Cells Using 3-(Quinoxaline-3-yl) Prop-2-ynyl Methanosulphonate and 3-(Quinoxaline-3-yl) Prop-2-yn-1-ol
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Volatile Metabolites Emitted In-Vivo from Cold-Hardy Grapes during Ripening Using SPME and GC-MS: A Proof-of-Concept
Previous Article in Journal
pKa Determination of a Histidine Residue in a Short Peptide Using Raman Spectroscopy
Previous Article in Special Issue
GC-MS and HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS Determination of the Volatile Composition of Essential Oils and Hydrosols (By-Products) from Four Eucalyptus Species Cultivated in Tuscany
Article Menu
Issue 3 (February-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030406

Development of Time-Weighted Average Sampling of Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds in Air with Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber Housed inside a GC Glass Liner: Proof of Concept

1
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan
3
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050012, Kazakhstan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Constantinos K. Zacharis and Paraskevas D. Tzanavaras
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid-Phase Microextraction)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2191 KB, uploaded 23 January 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Finding farm-proven, robust sampling technologies for measurement of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and evaluating the mitigation of nuisance emissions continues to be a challenge. The objective of this research was to develop a new method for quantification of odorous VOCs in air using time-weighted average (TWA) sampling. The main goal was to transform a fragile lab-based technology (i.e., solid-phase microextraction, SPME) into a rugged sampler that can be deployed for longer periods in remote locations. The developed method addresses the need to improve conventional TWA SPME that suffers from the influence of the metallic SPME needle on the sampling process. We eliminated exposure to metallic parts and replaced them with a glass tube to facilitate diffusion from odorous air onto an exposed SPME fiber. A standard gas chromatography (GC) liner recommended for SPME injections was adopted for this purpose. Acetic acid, a common odorous VOC, was selected as a model compound to prove the concept. GC with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for air analysis. An SPME fiber exposed inside a glass liner followed the Fick’s law of diffusion model. There was a linear relationship between extraction time and mass extracted up to 12 h (R2 > 0.99) and the inverse of retraction depth (1/Z) (R2 > 0.99). The amount of VOC adsorbed via the TWA SPME using a GC glass liner to protect the SPME was reproducible. The limit of detection (LOD, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 5) were 10 and 18 µg·m−3 (4.3 and 7.2 ppbV), respectively. There was no apparent difference relative to glass liner conditioning, offering a practical simplification for use in the field. The new method related well to field conditions when comparing it to the conventional method based on sorbent tubes. This research shows that an SPME fiber exposed inside a glass liner can be a promising, practical, simple approach for field applications to quantify odorous VOCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: SPME; retracted SPME; TWA SPME; GC–MS; on-site sampling; air quality; air monitoring; VOCs; odor; environmental analysis SPME; retracted SPME; TWA SPME; GC–MS; on-site sampling; air quality; air monitoring; VOCs; odor; environmental analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tursumbayeva, M.; Koziel, J.A.; Maurer, D.L.; Kenessov, B.; Rice, S. Development of Time-Weighted Average Sampling of Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds in Air with Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber Housed inside a GC Glass Liner: Proof of Concept. Molecules 2019, 24, 406.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top