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Open AccessArticle

Determination and Profiling of Human Skin Odors Using Hair Samples

1
Faculdade de Medicina do Centro Universitário Christus (UNICHRISTUS), Fortaleza, CE 60190-060, Brazil
2
Instituto Gonçalo Moniz (IGM)–Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, BA 40296-710, Brazil
3
Instituto de Química da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA 40170-115, Brazil
4
Programa de Pós-graduação em Desenvolvimento Regional e Meio Ambiente, Faculdade Maria Milza (FAMAM), Governador Mangabeira, BA 44350-000, Brazil
5
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da União Metropolitana de Educação e Cultura (UNIME), Lauro de Freitas, BA 42700-000, Brazil
6
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA 40026-010, Brazil
7
Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Investigação em Imunologia (iii-INCT), São Paulo, SP 05403-900, Brazil
8
Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Energia e Ambiente (INCT-EA), Salvador, BA 40170-115, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2964; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162964
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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PDF [1479 KB, uploaded 15 August 2019]
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Abstract

Background. There is no gold standard method for human skin odor determination; several techniques can be applied to collect, extract, transfer, and detect human skin odors. However, none of these methods are suitable for field sampling of a large number of individuals. Objective. The present study aimed to develop a simple, fast, non-invasive, and low-cost method for such a purpose. Methods. Considering that hair from legs can act as a retention mesh of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), samples of leg hairs provided by healthy adult males were collected and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), in headspace (HS) mode, coupled to gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the samples was carried out. A pilot test was applied to detect five quality markers that are frequently reported in human skin odors. Then, several steps were performed for method standardization. The method was applied to 36 different individuals (3 sampled under laboratory conditions and 33 under field conditions), aiming to evaluate its applicability in both environments. Findings. A total of 49 VOCs were identified, and 73.5% of these have been reported in previous studies. Main Conclusions. Hair from legs can be considered an efficient tool for human skin odor sampling and a suitable and practical matrix for human skin odor profile determination by using HS-SPME/GC-MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: HS-SPME/GC-MS; human skin odors; volatile organic compounds HS-SPME/GC-MS; human skin odors; volatile organic compounds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tavares, D.S.; Mesquita, P.R.R.; Salgado, V.R.; Rodrigues, F.M.; Miranda, J.C.; Barral-Netto, M.; de Andrade, J.B.; Barral, A. Determination and Profiling of Human Skin Odors Using Hair Samples. Molecules 2019, 24, 2964.

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