Generation of BSA-capsaicin Nanoparticles and Their Hormesis Effect on the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Yeast
Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Irapuato, Guanajuato 36824, Mexico
Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica A.C., León, Guanajuato 37150, Mexico
Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioquímica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Irapuato, Guanajuato 36824, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pin Ju Chueh
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152800
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Capsaicin II)
Capsaicin is a chemical compound found in pungent chili peppers (Capsicum spp.). In biotechnology, capsaicin has been proposed as a pathogen control; however, its low solubility in water and high instability limits its uses. The aim of this work was to study the effect of high concentrations of capsaicin on the synthesis of nanoparticles and to evaluate their inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa yeast. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-capsaicin nanoparticles were formulated at 0, 16.2, 32.5, 48.7 and 65.0 µg of capsaicin per mg of BSA. Nanoparticle properties were evaluated and they were added to cultures of R. mucilaginosa to quantify their effect on cell viability. We found that increased capsaicin levels caused several changes to the physicochemical parameters, probably due to changes in the hydrophobicity sites of the albumin during the nanostructuration. The administration of nanoparticles to cultures of R. mucilaginosa produced a maximal viability with nanoparticles at 16.2 µg/mg; on the contrary, nanoparticles at 65.0 µg/mg caused maximal cell death. R. mucilaginosa cells displayed a hormesis effect in response to the nanoparticle dose concentration. The nanoparticles showed different responses during the uptake process, probably as a consequence of the nanostructural properties of capsaicin in the BSA molecules.