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Open AccessReview

The Neuroprotective Effects of Astaxanthin: Therapeutic Targets and Clinical Perspective

1
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6718874414, Iran
2
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
3
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, Santiago 8330507, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paula B. Andrade
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142640
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
As the leading causes of human disability and mortality, neurological diseases affect millions of people worldwide and are on the rise. Although the general roles of several signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders have so far been identified, the exact pathophysiology of neuronal disorders and their effective treatments have not yet been precisely elucidated. This requires multi-target treatments, which should simultaneously attenuate neuronal inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In this regard, astaxanthin (AST) has gained growing interest as a multi-target pharmacological agent against neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain and spinal cord injuries, neuropathic pain (NP), aging, depression, and autism. The present review highlights the neuroprotective effects of AST mainly based on its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-apoptotic properties that underlies its pharmacological mechanisms of action to tackle neurodegeneration. The need to develop novel AST delivery systems, including nanoformulations, targeted therapy, and beyond, is also considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases; astaxanthin; pharmacology; neuroprotective agent; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation; apoptosis; drug delivery system neurodegenerative diseases; astaxanthin; pharmacology; neuroprotective agent; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation; apoptosis; drug delivery system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fakhri, S.; Yosifova Aneva, I.; Farzaei, M.H.; Sobarzo-Sánchez, E. The Neuroprotective Effects of Astaxanthin: Therapeutic Targets and Clinical Perspective. Molecules 2019, 24, 2640. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142640

AMA Style

Fakhri S, Yosifova Aneva I, Farzaei MH, Sobarzo-Sánchez E. The Neuroprotective Effects of Astaxanthin: Therapeutic Targets and Clinical Perspective. Molecules. 2019; 24(14):2640. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142640

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fakhri, Sajad; Yosifova Aneva, Ina; Farzaei, Mohammad H.; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo. 2019. "The Neuroprotective Effects of Astaxanthin: Therapeutic Targets and Clinical Perspective" Molecules 24, no. 14: 2640. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142640

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