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Flavonoid Composition of Salacia senegalensis (Lam.) DC. Leaves, Evaluation of Antidermatophytic Effects, and Potential Amelioration of the Associated Inflammatory Response

1
REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
2
Laboratório de Microbiologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
3
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
4
MDS—Medicamentos e Diagnósticos em Saúde, Avenida dos Combatentes da Liberdade da Pátria, Bissau, Guiné-Bissau
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142530
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids: From Structure to Health Issues II)
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Abstract

Predominantly spread in West Tropical Africa, the shrub Salacia senegalensis (Lam.) DC. is known because of its medicinal properties, the leaves being used in the treatment of skin diseases. Prompted by the ethnomedicinal use, a hydroethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of the plant was screened against a panel of microbial strains, the majority of which involved in superficial infections. The extract was found to be active against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Notable results were also recorded regarding the attenuation of the inflammatory response, namely the inhibitory effects observed against soybean 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 = 71.14 μg mL−1), no interference being recorded in the cellular viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages and NO levels. Relevantly, the extract did not lead to detrimental effects against the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, at concentrations displaying antidermatophytic and anti-inflammatory effects. Flavonoid profiling of S. senegalensis leaves was achieved for the first time, allowing the identification and quantitation of myricitrin, three 3-O-substituted quercetin derivatives, and three other flavonoid derivatives, which may contribute, at least partially, to the observed antidermatophytic and anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, the plant S. senegalensis is assessed concerning its antidermatophytic and anti-inflammatory properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifungal; flavonoids; inflammation; Isoquercitrin; Myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside; Quercetin-3-O-xyloside; Quercitrin; traditional medicine antifungal; flavonoids; inflammation; Isoquercitrin; Myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside; Quercetin-3-O-xyloside; Quercitrin; traditional medicine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gomes, N.G.M.; Oliveira, A.P.; Cunha, D.; Pereira, D.M.; Valentão, P.; Pinto, E.; Araújo, L.; Andrade, P.B. Flavonoid Composition of Salacia senegalensis (Lam.) DC. Leaves, Evaluation of Antidermatophytic Effects, and Potential Amelioration of the Associated Inflammatory Response. Molecules 2019, 24, 2530.

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