Effect of Different Proportions of Three Microbial Agents on Ammonia Mitigation during the Composting of Layer Manure
AbstractOdor emissions represent one of the important issues of aerobic composting. The addition of microbial agents to compost is an important method for solving this problem, but this process is often unstable when a single microbial agent is added to the compost. Therefore, in this study, five treatments comprising different proportions of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Candida utilis, and Bacillus subtilis were tested to determine the best combination of the three microbial agents for ammonia reduction, as follows: control group (CK), 2:1:1 (A), 1:1:2 (B), 1:2:1 (C), and 1:1:1 (D). Compared with the CK group, the A, B, C, and D groups reduced ammonia emissions by 17.02, 9.68, 53.11, and 46.23%, respectively. The total ammonia emissions were significantly lower in C and D than in CK (p < 0.05). These two treatment groups had significantly increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations and decreased pH values and ammonium nitrogen concentrations (p < 0.05). Throughout the composting process, the total bacterial number was significantly higher in C and D than in CK (p < 0.05). Therefore, it is likely that B. stearothermophilus, C. utilis, and B. subtilis compounded from 1:2:1 (C) to 1:1:1 (D) reduced the ammonia emissions due to (1) a reduction in the pH and (2) the promotion of the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the conversion of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen. This study provides a theoretical basis and technical support for the odor problem of layer manure compost and promotes the development of composting technology. View Full-Text
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Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Liao, X.; Wu, Y.; Mi, J.; Wang, Y. Effect of Different Proportions of Three Microbial Agents on Ammonia Mitigation during the Composting of Layer Manure. Molecules 2019, 24, 2513.
Zhou S, Zhang X, Liao X, Wu Y, Mi J, Wang Y. Effect of Different Proportions of Three Microbial Agents on Ammonia Mitigation during the Composting of Layer Manure. Molecules. 2019; 24(13):2513.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhou, Shizheng; Zhang, Xinyi; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao; Mi, Jiandui; Wang, Yan. 2019. "Effect of Different Proportions of Three Microbial Agents on Ammonia Mitigation during the Composting of Layer Manure." Molecules 24, no. 13: 2513.
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