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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Different Proportions of Three Microbial Agents on Ammonia Mitigation during the Composting of Layer Manure

1
National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding and Key lab of Chicken Genetics, Breeding and reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132513
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
Odor emissions represent one of the important issues of aerobic composting. The addition of microbial agents to compost is an important method for solving this problem, but this process is often unstable when a single microbial agent is added to the compost. Therefore, in this study, five treatments comprising different proportions of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Candida utilis, and Bacillus subtilis were tested to determine the best combination of the three microbial agents for ammonia reduction, as follows: control group (CK), 2:1:1 (A), 1:1:2 (B), 1:2:1 (C), and 1:1:1 (D). Compared with the CK group, the A, B, C, and D groups reduced ammonia emissions by 17.02, 9.68, 53.11, and 46.23%, respectively. The total ammonia emissions were significantly lower in C and D than in CK (p < 0.05). These two treatment groups had significantly increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations and decreased pH values and ammonium nitrogen concentrations (p < 0.05). Throughout the composting process, the total bacterial number was significantly higher in C and D than in CK (p < 0.05). Therefore, it is likely that B. stearothermophilus, C. utilis, and B. subtilis compounded from 1:2:1 (C) to 1:1:1 (D) reduced the ammonia emissions due to (1) a reduction in the pH and (2) the promotion of the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the conversion of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen. This study provides a theoretical basis and technical support for the odor problem of layer manure compost and promotes the development of composting technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia migration; composting; layer manure; Bacillus subtilis; Bacillus stearothermophilus; Candida utilis ammonia migration; composting; layer manure; Bacillus subtilis; Bacillus stearothermophilus; Candida utilis
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Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Liao, X.; Wu, Y.; Mi, J.; Wang, Y. Effect of Different Proportions of Three Microbial Agents on Ammonia Mitigation during the Composting of Layer Manure. Molecules 2019, 24, 2513.

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