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Apoptosis Induction Pathway in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line SW480 Exposed to Cereal Phenolic Extracts

School of Biomedical Sciences, Australian Research Council (ARC) Industrial Transformation Training Centre (ITTC) for Functional Grains, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
Agriculture and Food Discipline, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Margarida Castell Escuer and Mariona Camps-Bossacoma
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2465;
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Cereal phenolic extracts have previously been investigated for their potential anticancer properties; however, the exact mechanisms involved in the inhibition of tumour growth are unclear. One possible mechanism is the induction of apoptosis which is characterised by cell shrinkage, protein fragmentation, and DNA degradation followed by rapid engulfment of cell debris by macrophages. This study examines the ability of phenolic extracts from four cereals: rice, barley, oats and sorghum to induce apoptosis on colorectal cancer cells SW480. Wholegrain extracts from pigmented varieties of red rice, purple rice, black sorghum, and brown sorghum showed a significant reduction in cancer cell proliferation. Morphological observation using APOPercentage™ dye indicated positive for apoptosis. Further analyses of Yunlu29 (rice), Shawaya Short Black 1 and IS1136 (sorghum) showed expression of p53 and confirmed activation of multiple caspases, specifically for caspase 3 and 7. Purple rice, on the other hand, did not upregulate caspase 3 and 7, hence, suggestive of cell cycle arrest. Therefore, phenolic compounds present in cereals such as pigmented rice and sorghum may suppress cancer cell proliferation through the activation of the apoptosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; cytotoxicity; colorectal cancer; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; chemopreventive apoptosis; cytotoxicity; colorectal cancer; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; chemopreventive

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Rao, S.; Chinkwo, K.; Santhakumar, A.; Johnson, S.; Blanchard, C. Apoptosis Induction Pathway in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line SW480 Exposed to Cereal Phenolic Extracts. Molecules 2019, 24, 2465.

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