Next Article in Journal
Duodenoscope-Associated Infections beyond the Elevator Channel: Alternative Causes for Difficult Reprocessing
Previous Article in Journal
Methods to Discover and Evaluate Proteasome Small Molecule Stimulators
Article Menu
Issue 12 (June-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Spiroindolone Analogues as Potential Hypoglycemic with Dual Inhibitory Activity on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 1167, Saudi Arabia
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 426, Ibrahimia, Alexandria 21321, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2342;
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indole Derivatives: Synthesis and Application)
PDF [4068 KB, uploaded 25 June 2019]


Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by specified synthetic compounds during the digestion of starch helps control post-prandial hyperglycemia and could represent a potential therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. A new series of spiroheterocyclic compounds bearing oxindole/benzofuran/pyrrolidine/thiazolidine motifs were synthesized via a 1,3-dipolar cyclo-addition reaction approach. The specific compounds were obtained by reactions of chalcones having a benzo[b]furan scaffold (compounds 2a–f), with a substituted isatin (compounds 3a–c) and heterocyclic amino acids (compounds 4a,b). The target spiroindolone analogues 5a–r were evaluated for their potential inhibitory activities against the enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Preliminary results indicated that some of the target compounds exhibit promising α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Among the tested spiroindolone analogues, the cycloadduct 5r was found to be the most active (IC50 = 22.61 ± 0.54 μM and 14.05 ± 1.03 μM) as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, with selectivity indexes of 0.62 and 1.60, respectively. Docking studies were carried out to confirm the binding interaction between the enzyme active site and the spiroindolone analogues. View Full-Text
Keywords: spiroindolone; antidiabetic; hypoglycemic; α-amylase; α-glucosidase spiroindolone; antidiabetic; hypoglycemic; α-amylase; α-glucosidase

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Altowyan, M.S.; Barakat, A.; Al-Majid, A.M.; Al-Ghulikah, H. Spiroindolone Analogues as Potential Hypoglycemic with Dual Inhibitory Activity on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase. Molecules 2019, 24, 2342.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top