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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Long-Term Administration of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB597 on Oxidative Metabolism in the Heart of Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Experimental Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2A, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092350
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Topics in (Endo)Cannabinoid Signalling)
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597) may influence redox balance and blood pressure through the modulation of endocannabinoids levels. Therefore, this study aimed to compare changes in oxidative metabolism and apoptosis in the hearts of rats with spontaneous hypertension (SHR) and secondary hypertension (11-deoxycorticosterone acetate; DOCA-salt rats) treated by URB597 via intraperitoneal injection for 14 days. The results showed that URB597 decreased the activity of NADPH and xanthine oxidases in both groups of rats. Moreover, in the heart of SHR rats, URB597 led to an increase of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity and levels (catalase, vitamin C, glutathione/glutathione disulfide [GSH/GSSG]) and upregulation of the thioredoxin system; however, NRf2 expression was downregulated. The opposite effect in relation to Nrf2 activity and the thioredoxin system was observed in DOCA-salt rats after URB597 administration. Despite improvement in antioxidant parameters, URB597 enhanced oxidative modifications of phospholipids (4-hydroxynonenal and isoprostanes) and proteins (carbonyl groups) in SHR heart, whereas 4-hydroxynonenal and carbonyl groups levels decreased in the heart of DOCA-salt rats. Obtained results suggest that examined lipid mediators are involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-independent and PPAR-dependent modulation of cardiac inflammatory reactions. Furthermore, decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase 3 and 9) was observed after URB597 administration in the heart of both groups of hypertensive rats, whereas expression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl-2) increased in SHR rats. Long-term administration of URB597 altered cardiac redox status depending on the type of hypertension. URB597 enhanced oxidative metabolism and reduced pro-apoptotic factors in the heart of SHR rats, increasing the probability of heart metabolic disorders occurrence or progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart; URB597; hypertension; oxidative stress heart; URB597; hypertension; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Biernacki, M.; Łuczaj, W.; Jarocka-Karpowicz, I.; Ambrożewicz, E.; Toczek, M.; Skrzydlewska, E. The Effect of Long-Term Administration of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB597 on Oxidative Metabolism in the Heart of Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension. Molecules 2018, 23, 2350. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092350

AMA Style

Biernacki M, Łuczaj W, Jarocka-Karpowicz I, Ambrożewicz E, Toczek M, Skrzydlewska E. The Effect of Long-Term Administration of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB597 on Oxidative Metabolism in the Heart of Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension. Molecules. 2018; 23(9):2350. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Biernacki, Michał; Łuczaj, Wojciech; Jarocka-Karpowicz, Iwona; Ambrożewicz, Ewa; Toczek, Marek; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta. 2018. "The Effect of Long-Term Administration of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB597 on Oxidative Metabolism in the Heart of Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension" Molecules 23, no. 9: 2350. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092350

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