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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092217

Phosphate-Catalyzed Succinimide Formation from an NGR-Containing Cyclic Peptide: A Novel Mechanism for Deammoniation of the Tetrahedral Intermediate

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558, Japan
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Academic Editor: Irene Izzo
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclic Peptides)
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Abstract

Spontaneous deamidation in the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif that yields an isoAsp-Gly-Arg (isoDGR) sequence has recently attracted considerable attention because of the possibility of application to dual tumor targeting. It is well known that Asn deamidation reactions in peptide chains occur via the five-membered ring succinimide intermediate. Recently, we computationally showed by the B3LYP density functional theory method, that inorganic phosphate and the Arg side chain can catalyze the NGR deamidation using a cyclic peptide, c[CH2CO–NGRC]–NH2. In this previous study, the tetrahedral intermediate of the succinimide formation was assumed to be readily protonated at the nitrogen originating from the Asn side chain by the solvent water before the release of an NH3 molecule. In the present study, we found a new mechanism for the decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate that does not require the protonation by an external proton source. The computational method is the same as in the previous study. In the new mechanism, the release of an NH3 molecule occurs after a proton exchange between the peptide and the phosphate and conformational changes. The rate-determining step of the overall reaction course is the previously reported first step, i.e., the cyclization to form the tetrahedral intermediate. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif; deamidation; isoAsp-Gly-Arg (isoDGR) motif; dual tumor targeting; non-enzymatic reaction; succinimide formation; tetrahedral intermediate; phosphate catalysis; computational chemistry; density functional theory Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif; deamidation; isoAsp-Gly-Arg (isoDGR) motif; dual tumor targeting; non-enzymatic reaction; succinimide formation; tetrahedral intermediate; phosphate catalysis; computational chemistry; density functional theory
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Kirikoshi, R.; Manabe, N.; Takahashi, O. Phosphate-Catalyzed Succinimide Formation from an NGR-Containing Cyclic Peptide: A Novel Mechanism for Deammoniation of the Tetrahedral Intermediate. Molecules 2018, 23, 2217.

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