Bacterial infections represent a serious threat in modern medicine. In particular, biofilm treatment in clinical settings is challenging, as biofilms are very resistant to conventional antibiotic therapy and may spread infecting other tissues. To address this problem, biosensing technologies are emerging as a powerful solution to detect and identify bacterial pathogens at the very early stages of the infection, thus allowing rapid and effective treatments before biofilms are formed. Biosensors typically consist of two main parts, a biorecognition moiety that interacts with the target (i.e., bacteria) and a platform that transduces such interaction into a measurable signal. This review will focus on the development of impedimetric biosensors using antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as biorecognition elements. AMPs belong to the innate immune system of living organisms and are very effective in interacting with bacterial membranes. They offer unique advantages compared to other classical bioreceptor molecules such as enzymes or antibodies. Moreover, impedance-based sensors allow the development of label-free, rapid, sensitive, specific and cost-effective sensing platforms. In summary, AMPs and impedimetric transducers combine excellent properties to produce robust biosensors for the early detection of bacterial infections.
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