Next Article in Journal
Antimicrobial Peptides: Powerful Biorecognition Elements to Detect Bacteria in Biosensing Technologies
Next Article in Special Issue
Synthesis of Multi-Substituted Pyrrole Derivatives Through [3+2] Cycloaddition with Tosylmethyl Isocyanides (TosMICs) and Electron-Deficient Compounds
Previous Article in Journal
Comparative Strengths of Tetrel, Pnicogen, Chalcogen, and Halogen Bonds and Contributing Factors
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correction: El-kalyoubi, S.; et al. Novel 2-Thioxanthine and Dipyrimidopyridine Derivatives: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity. Molecules, 2015, 20, 19263–19276
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Functionalized Sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates

Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Synthesis of Biomolecules and Molecular Modelling Group, Badji-Mokhtar—Annaba University, Box 12, 23000 Annaba, Algeria
Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry, Badji-Mokhtar-Annaba University, Box 12, 23000 Annaba, Algeria
CNRS, Université de Nantes, Chimie et Interdisciplinarité: Synthèse, Analyse, Modélisation (CEISAM), UMR CNRS 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP92208, CEDEX 3, 44322 Nantes, France
Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Faculté de Pharmacie—ISPB, EA 4446 Bioactive Molecules and Medicinal Chemistry, SFR Santé Lyon-Est CNRS UMS3453—INSERM US7, CEDEX 8, 69373 Lyon, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1682;
Submission received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Heterocyclic Compounds)


Several new sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates were prepared in two steps, namely carbamoylation and sulfamoylation, by using chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI), α-hydroxyphosphonates, and various amino derivatives and related (primary or secondary amines, β-amino esters, and oxazolidin-2-ones). All structures were confirmed by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. Eight compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four reference bacteria including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 700603), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), in addition to three clinical strains of each studied bacterial species. Compounds 1a7a and 1b showed significant antibacterial activity compared to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, the reference drug used in this study.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

The synthesis and reactivity of sulfamides (sulfonyl analogues of ureas) have attracted much interest in the last decades [1]. A large number of sulfamide derivatives have been reported to show biological activities such as anti-mycobacterial, anticonvulsant, anti-hypoglycemic, anticancer, and enzyme inhibition (e.g., carbonic anhydrase I, HIV-1 protease, elastase, carboxypeptidase A) [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. These important compounds have been synthesized by various routes, most of them using the reaction of a sulfonyl chloride with ammonia or primary and secondary amines [10]. Another approach utilizes the amide exchange of a sulfamide by heating with an amine [11]. In parallel, many synthetic efforts have also focused on sulfonamide derivatives that have shown great potency to inhibit important biological targets such as cox-2, carbonic anhydrase (e.g., isoenzymes I, II, VII, IX), and NaV1.7, or to block, for example, the Chlamydia fatty acid synthesis [12,13,14,15,16].
In addition, the extensive interest in the synthesis of bifunctional sulfonamide or sulfamide-phosphonate derivatives is due to their broad biological activities. In Figure 1, the structures of six bifunctional compounds are depicted. Biasone et al. [17] demonstrated that analogues of α-biphenylsulfonylamino 2-methylpropyl phosphonate 1 exhibit potency against several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). New sildenafil analogue 2 containing a phosphonate group in the 5′-sulfonamide moiety of the phenyl ring has shown promising in vitro PDE5 inhibitory activity [18]. Sulfonamide derivative 3 containing a single difluoromethylene phosphonate group has been discovered to be a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B [19]. A series of phosphonate derivatives of mycophenolic acid 4 were described as anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory agents [20]. Compound 5 shows the highest insecticidal activity against plant pests [21]. It should be pointed out that to the best of our knowledge, it is the only example of compounds containing a sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate moiety described in the literature. Finally, Winum et al. [22] reported the synthesis of sulfamide analogues of fotemustine 6 along with preliminary in vitro evaluation on two human melanoma cell lines.
Since the 1930’s, sulfamide and sulfonamide derivatives have had a special place in the anti-infectious strategies and their therapeutic application continues to be investigated, as illustrated by this recent work on the use of sulfonamide agents against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) of the CNS [23]. They demonstrated that sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) (Figure 2) exhibited strong activity against bacteria. Fosfomycin (Figure 2) is another well-known antibacterial agent with a structure containing a phosphonate motif and may be prescribed alone or in combination (e.g., with vancomycin). Unfortunately, year after year, increased bacterial resistance to sulfonamides/sulfamides [24] to the combination sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) [25] and to fosfomycin [26] has limited their use. Moreover, the appearance of multidrug resistant Gram-positive bacteria, in particular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), has become a major health problem [27]. So, new research on drug discovery needs to be intensively developed for designing new antibacterial agents.
In continuation of our interest in the preparation of sulfonamide and sulfamide derivatives [28,29,30,31], we decided to include both motifs, sulfamido and phosphonate, on each targeted compound and then to obtain new hybrids also containing an α-phenyl on the phosphonate methylene. For this preliminary study, we opted to select a set of various substituents -NR2R3 and -PO(OR1)2 in order to shape the first SAR trends in this series (Figure 3). To link these motifs, we chose a carbonyloxy-type spacer present in compounds 5 and 6 (Figure 1). The first-step reaction using chlorosulfonyl isocyanate and the corresponding α-hydroxyphosphonate-type intermediate allowed us to synthesize all N-chlorosulfonyl carbamate intermediates. In the second step, the key structural sequence, sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate, was achieved directly from various amines. The antibacterial activity of eight phosphonate derivatives (1a7a and 1b) was studied against representative reference strains Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, as well as diverse clinical strains. Inhibition zones were performed by the disc diffusion method and the MIC values were determined by the dilution broth method [32]. The combination SMX-TMP, currently employed to treat bacterial infections, was used as the reference standard.

2. Results and Discussion

2.1. Chemistry

The synthetic route for the preparation of a novel series of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1a8a is outlined in Scheme 1. The synthesis was carried out in two steps. First, carbamoylation under anhydrous conditions of commercial chlorosulfonyl isocyanate with the corresponding α-hydroxyphosphonate (R1 = methyl or ethyl), easily prepared in a single step [33,34], quantitatively afforded the corresponding N-chlorosulfonyl carbamate intermediate. Reaction with various primary or secondary amines in the presence of triethylamine at 0 °C then gave the target compounds 1a8a in excellent yields (92–99%) within 60–90 min (Table 1).
To increase the scope of this reaction, we synthesized other sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates using diverse (S)-amino acid esters (Scheme 2). The isolated yields of the products 1b3b, obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers (Table 2), were in the range of 84–94% yield after 90 min of reaction.
These satisfactory and encouraging results have prompted us to develop a third subseries (Scheme 3, Table 3), by using oxazolidin-2-one as a building block in order to synthesize new potential bioactive molecules. The new compound 1c was obtained with a very good yield (92%).
Spectrometric methods confirmed the structures of all the sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates synthesized. Their physicochemical and analytical data are depicted in Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3. The FT-IR spectrum showed the characteristic signals of the three functions, namely the carbamate NH stretching at 3300–3250 cm−1 and its C=O stretching at 1750–1730 cm−1, the phosphonate group at 1255–1234 cm−1, and the sulfamide group with its two signals at 1185–1118 cm−1 and 1384–1356 cm−1. The molecular peak [M + H]+ obtained by ESI-MS was always present and corresponded to each synthesized compound. NMR spectra were recorded using CDCl3 as the solvent and are available in the supplementary material part. The 1H spectrum always exhibited a dramatically deshielded doublet at 6 ppm corresponding to the COOCH(Ph)POOR proton with its expected coupling constant 2JH-P frequently around 12–14 Hz. The two methoxy groups of the phosphonate appeared as two separate doublets (3JH-P~10 Hz) at 3.5 and 3.7 ppm, while the NH of the carbamate appeared as a broad singlet at δ 8–11 ppm. The 13C spectrum was also characteristic due to the expected doublets related to the presence of the phosphorus (JC-P couplings): (i) the methoxy of the phosphonates at 54 ppm (2JC-P~7–8 Hz), and (ii) the aromatic ring (3JC-P~6 Hz and 4JC-P~1–3 Hz) [35,36]. The 13C chemical shifts are particular, as the carbonyl of the carbamate at 150 ppm (doublet with a 3JC-P = 12 Hz coupling constant) and the greatly deshielded COOCH(Ph)POOR carbon at 70 ppm (doublet with a 1JC-P = 170 Hz coupling constant).
To determine the initial interest of these novel functionalized sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates as antibacterial agents, we only selected eight derivatives (including seven from the first sub-series) for testing their potency against sixteen bacterial strains. This first biological study can confirm the interest to modulate such a scaffold.

2.2. In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates

A total of twelve clinical strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and four control strains (S. aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603) were used to investigate the antibacterial activity. The eight tested sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate derivatives (compounds 1a7a and 1b) showed antibacterial activity with a varying degree of inhibitory effect on the growth of the bacterial strains (Table 4 and Table 5).
The disk diffusion is just a qualitative method to determine whether a particular bacterium is susceptible to the action of a specific antimicrobial agent. The presence or the absence of a clear region around the disk is an indication of the inhibition or lack of inhibition of the bacterial growth. Then, the size of the zone of inhibition indicates the degree of sensitivity of bacteria to an antimicrobial drug. We could use the terms “resistant, intermediate, and sensitive” to discuss the results obtained. As shown in Table 4, the diameters of the inhibition zone (DIZ) of the tested compounds against the bacteria strains ranged from 12–26 mm. The values obtained with the positive control sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) ranged between 17 and 22 mm for both clinical and control strains. Furthermore, some P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae strains (P. aeruginosa 1, K. pneumoniae 1 and 3) were resistant (R) towards SXT. It should be noted that P. aeruginosa is known to be a multidrug resistant bacteria due to its remarkable ability of acquiring mechanisms of resistance to some antimicrobial agents.
Tested sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate derivatives were more active toward Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive ones. Compound 4a was inactive on all three clinical strains of S. aureus (only DIZ = 12 mm for S. aureus ATCC 25923). Compounds 2a, 3a, 6a, 7a, and 1b exerted intermediate activity on S. aureus (12 ≤ DIZ ≤ 16 mm). The best activities on S. aureus (DIZ > 16 mm, result reported as sensitive) were observed with compounds 1a (S. aureus 3) and 5a (S. aureus 1 and 3) with zone sizes of 17, 18, and 17 mm, respectively. Nevertheless, SXT seems to give better results, with zone sizes of between 18 and 22 mm. On E. coli strains, all tested compounds and STX gave results with inhibition zones between 17 and 25 mm. Among them, compounds 3a and 4a were the most active molecules against E. coli, with inhibition diameters of 25 mm for E. coli ATCC 25922 and 24 mm for E. coli 2. For P. aeruginosa strains, the inhibition zones were between 17 and 26 mm. Their susceptibility was really marked with compounds 1a, 4a, and 5a, with zone sizes between 18 and 26 mm. Compound 1a showed the best activity against strains P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa 2, with an inhibition diameter of 26 mm. SXT exhibited less activity against the four P. aeruginosa strains tested. For example, in the cases of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa 2, the inhibition zones of STX were equal to 17 and 20 mm, respectively. Concerning K. Pneumoniae, all tested sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate derivatives were globally active, with inhibition zones superior to 15 mm. The best activity was obtained with compound 4a, with inhibition zones of 24 and 25 mm for clinical strains.
After the evidence of in vitro antibacterial activity against the tested strains in the disk diffusion test, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were determined. As shown in Table 5, most derivatives exhibited low MIC values against the different strains of bacteria employed when compared with STX (MIC = 25 µg/mL). All the tested compounds showed the best MIC values against E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains, ranging between 0.5 and 32 µg/mL. In particular, compounds 1a, 3a, and 6a exerted the most intense activity, especially on P. aeruginosa, with MIC values ranging between 0.5 and 1 µg/mL for 1a and 1 and 4 µg/mL for 3a and 6a. As regards compound 4a, it was very active against E. coli strains, with MIC values between 0.5 and 4 µg/mL. For K. pneumoniae, the best results were obtained with compounds 1a and 4a, with MIC values in the range of 4 to 8 µg/mL and 2 to 16 µg/mL, respectively. Concerning S. aureus strains, all MIC values were superior to 64 µg/mL, except for compound 1b (15 ≤ MIC ≤ 18 µg/mL).
Overall, our results showed that the sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates possessed a good concentration dependent antibacterial activity, especially against the tested Gram-negative bacteria at MIC values ranging between 0.5–32 µg/mL for compound 1a, and 0.5 and 16 µg/mL for compound 4a. Among the eight compounds tested, only compound 1b exerted antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

3. Materials and Methods

3.1. General Information

All chemicals and solvents were purchased from common commercial sources and were used as received without any further purification. All reactions were monitored by TLC on silica Merck 60 F254 percolated aluminum plates and were developed by spraying with ninhydrin solution. Column chromatography was performed with Merck silica gel (230–400 mesh). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra were recorded on Bruker or Jeol spectrometers at 400 MHz. Chemical shifts are reported in δ units (ppm) with TMS as the reference (δ 0.00). All coupling constants (J) are reported in Hertz. Multiplicity is indicated by one or more of the following: b (broad), s (singlet), d (doublet), t (triplet), q (quartet), dd (doublet of doublet), and m (multiplet). The Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) spectra were recorded on Bruker (Reinstetten, Germany) or Jeol (JNM-ECS400 (Tokyo, Japan) spectrometers at 100.62 MHz. Chemical shifts are reported in δ units (ppm) and coupling constants (J) are reported in Hertz. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectra and Fluor (19F NMR) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were recorded on a Bruker spectrometer at 161.98 MHz and 316.48 MHz, respectively. Infrared spectra were recorded on a Perkin Elmer 600 (Waltham, Massachusetts, USA) spectrometer. The Mass spectra were recorded on a shimadzu QP 1100 Ex mass spectrometer operating at an ionization potential of 70 eV. Elemental analysis was recorded on a EURO E.A. 3700 apparatus. All melting points were recorded on a Büchi B-545 (Taufkirchen, Germany) apparatus in open capillary tubes.
Ultrasound assisted reactions were carried out using a FUNGILAB ultrasonic bath (Barcelona, Spain) with a frequency of 40 kHz and a nominal power of 250 W. The reactions were carried out in an open glass tube (diameter: 25 mm; thickness: 1 mm; volume: 20 mL) at room temperature.

3.2. Typical Experimental Procedure for the Synthesis of Sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1a8a, 1b3b, and 1c

α-Hydroxyphosphonates were synthesized in 94% overall yield starting from benzaldehyde and trialkylphosphites under ultrasound irradiation according to the procedure described in reference [34].
A solution of α-hydroxyphosphonate (1.1 equiv) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (5 mL) was added dropwise to a stirring solution of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) (1 equiv) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (5 mL) at 0 °C over a period of 20 min. The resulting solution was transferred to a mixture of primary or secondary amine (1.1 equiv) or amino acid ester or oxazolidin-2-one in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (10 mL) in the presence of triethylamine (1.1–1.5 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for less than 1–2 h, and then neutralized by adding a solution of aqueous HCl 0.1 M to pH 7. The organic layer was extracted, washed with water, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The pure products were crystallized in a mixture of diethyl ether/n-hexane (1.5:1) at 6 °C overnight. The pure sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates were finally filtered and dried in excellent yields.
(Dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl (N-benzylsulfamoyl)carbamate (1a). White powder, 99% yield, m.p. 131–133 °C, Rf = 0.43 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3365, 3298, 1733, 1481, 1364, 1249, 1170. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 3.57 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 10.4 Hz, CH3-OP), 3.77 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 10.8 Hz, CH3-OP), 4.11 (dd, 1H, J1 = 13.6 Hz, J2 = 5.4 Hz, CH-N), 4.23 (dd, 1H, J1 = 14.0 Hz, J2 = 5.6 Hz, CH-N), 5.61 (bs, 1H, NH-SO2), 6.00 (d, 1H, 2JH-P = 12.0 Hz, CH*-OP), 7.18–7.28 (m, 5H, H-Ar), 7.36–7.42 (m, 3H, H-Ar), 7.47–7.53 (m, 2H, H-Ar), 8.90 (bs, 1H, NH-C=O). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 48.15 (CH2), 54.19 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 54.48 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 72.52 (d, JC-P = 172 Hz, CH*-OP), 128.03 (2C, d, JC-P = 6 Hz), 128.18 (2C), 128.34 (2C), 128.54, 128.96 (2C, d, JC-P = 4 Hz), 129.58, 132.41, 135.54, 150.49 (d, JC-P = 11 Hz, C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 19.10. Anal. Calc. for C17H21N2O7PS: C 47.66, H 4.94, N 6.54, S 7.48. Found: C 47.71, H 4.89, N 6.52, S 7.44%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 429.1 [M + H]+.
(Dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl(N-(2-methoxyphenyl)sulfamoyl)carbamate (2a). White powder, 98% yield, m.p. 137–139 °C, Rf = 0.40 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR(KBr, cm−1): 3342, 3275, 1733, 1489, 1361, 1252, 1136. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 3.50 (d, 3H, 3JH-P= 10.8 Hz, CH3-OP), 3.54 (s, 3H, CH3-O), 3.62 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 10.8 Hz, CH3-OP), 5.94 (d, 1H, 2JH-P = 14.0 Hz, CH*-OP), 6.75 (dd, 1H, J1 = 8.0 Hz, J2 = 1.2 Hz, Hortho-Ar OMe), 6.84 (td, 1H, J1 = 7.6 Hz, J2 = 1.2 Hz, Hmetha-Ar), 7.07 (td, 1H, J1 = 6.8 Hz, J2 = 1.2 Hz, H-Ar), 7.31–7.39 (m, 5H, H-Ar), 7.43 (dd, 1H, J1 = 8.0 Hz, J2 = 1.6 Hz, Hortho-Ar NH), 7.55 (bs, 1H, NH-SO2), 9.85 (bs, 1H, NH-C=O). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 54.16 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 54.26 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 55.79 (OCH3), 72.20 (d, JC-P = 174 Hz, CH*-OP), 111.09, 120.87, 121.04, 121.37, 125.95, 128.09 (2C, d, JC-P = 6 Hz), 128.86, 129.33 (2C, d, JC-P = 3 Hz), 132.52, 149.73, 150.09 (d, JC-P = 12 Hz, C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 CDCl3) δ: 18.81. Anal. Calc. for C17H21N2O8PS: C 45.95, H 4.76, N 6.30, S 7.22. Found: C 45.90, H 4.81, N 6.28, S 7.26%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 445.1 [M + H]+.
(Dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl(morpholinosulfonyl)carbamate (3a). White powder, 98% yield, m.p. 144–146 °C, Rf = 0.47 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3447, 3297, 1732, 1481, 1361, 1247, 1185, 769, 687. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 3.29–3.31 (m, 4H, 2 CH2-N), 3.56 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 10.4 Hz, CH3-OP), 3.65–3.67 (m, 4H, 2 CH2-O), 3.84 (d, 3H,3JH-P = 10.8 Hz, CH3-OP), 6.02 (d, 1H, 2JH-P = 13.6 Hz, CH*-OP), 7.37–7.40 (m, 3H, H-Ar), 7.51–7.55 (m, 2H, H-Ar), 9.92 (bs, 1H, NH-C=O). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 46.70 (2C, CH2-N), 54.23 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 54.38 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 66.32 (2C, CH2-O), 72.09 (d, JC-P = 174 Hz, CH*-OP), 128.16 (2C, d, JC-P = 6 Hz), 128.92 (2C, d, JC-P = 1 Hz), 129.56 (d, JC-P = 3 Hz), 132.46, 150.72 (d, JC-P = 12 Hz, C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 CDCl3) δ: 18.93. Anal. Calc. for C14H21N2O8PS: C 41.18, H 5.18, N 6.86, S 7.85. Found: C 41.22, H 5.23, N 6.83, S 7.81%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 409.1 [M + H]+.
(Dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl(N-(3-fluorophenyl)sulfamoyl)carbamate (4a). White powder, 96% yield, m.p. 136–138 °C, Rf = 0.41 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3311, 3297, 1758, 1477, 1355, 1251, 1166. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 3.62 (dd, 3H, J1 = 38.8 Hz, J2 = 10.4 Hz, CH3-O), 3.72 (dd, 3H, J1 = 10.4 Hz, J2 = 1.2 Hz, CH3-O), 5.95 (d, 1H, J = 13.6, CH*-O), 6.88–7.04 (m, 3H, H-Ar), 7.19–7.41 (m, 6H, H-Ar). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 54.85, 54.90, 71.86, 73.21, 128.14, 128.30, 129.23, 129.65, 12.91, 131.15, 131.75, 134.19, 134.56, 138.25, 138.45, 150.36. 31P-NMR (161.98 CDCl3) 20.61. 19F-NMR (316.48 MHz, CDCl3) δ: −111.62. Anal. Calc. for C16H18FN2O7PS: C 44.45, H 4.20, N 6.48, S 7.42. Found: C 44.40, H 4.23, N 6.52, S 7.41%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 433.1 [M + H]+.
(Diethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl(N-phenylsulfamoyl)carbamate (5a). White powder, 96% yield, m.p. 187–189 °C, Rf = 0.42 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3447, 3297, 1733, 1481, 1384, 1247, 1185. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 1.03 (t, 3H, J = 7.0 Hz, CH3), 1.30 (t, 3H, J = 7.0 Hz, CH3), 3.59–3.68 (m, 1H, CH2-O), 3.82–3.90 (m, 1H, CH2-O), 4.07–4.17 (m, 2H, CH2-O), 5.82 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 Hz, CH*OP), 6.47 (s, 1H, NH-SO2), 6.80 (dd, 2H, J1 = 8.8 Hz, J2 = 1.2 Hz, H-Ar), 7.02 (t, 1H, J = 7.6 Hz, H-Ar), 7.15 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, H-Ar), 7.20–7.26 (m, 5H, H-Ar).13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 16.32 (CH3), 16.59 (CH3), 63.96 (CH2), 64.10 (CH2), 72.46 (d, JC-P = 170 Hz, CH*-OP), 119.77 (2C), 124.46, 128.31 (2C, d, JC-P = 6 Hz), 128.76 (2C), 128.90 (2C), 129.32, 134.25, 136.86, 150.40 (d, JC-P = 16 Hz, C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 19.61. Anal. Calc. for C18H23N2O7PS: C 48.87, H 5.24, N 6.33, S 7.25. Found: C 48.93, H 5.21, N 6.28, S 7.26%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 443.1 [M + H]+.
(Dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl(3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)sulfonylcarbamate (6a). Color powder, 94% yield, m.p. 153–155 °C, Rf = 0.49 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3258, 1750, 1360, 1454, 1234, 1120. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 2.87 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz, CAr-CH2-CH2), 3.55 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 10.0 Hz, CH3-OP), 3.60 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz, CH2-CH2-N), 3.75 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 10.0 Hz, CH3-O), 4.52 (s, 2H, CAr-CH2-N), 6.00 (d, 1H, 2JH-P = 12.0 Hz, CH*-O), 7.01–7.08 (m, 2H, H-Ar), 7.14–7.16 (m, 2H, H-Ar), 7.33–7.36 (m, 3H, H-Ar), 7.48-7.51 (m, 2H, H-Ar), 9.91 (s, 1H, NH-C=O). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 28.38 (CH2), 44.47 (NCH2), 47.78 (NCH2), 54.63 (2C, POCH3), 72.04 (d, JC-P = 178 Hz, CH*-OP), 126.4, 126.6, 127.1, 128.6 (2C), 128.8, 129.60 (2C), 129.80, 131.41, 132.4, 133.2, 150.95 (d, JC-P = 16 Hz, C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 18.76. Anal. Calc. for C19H23N2O7PS: C 50.22, H 5.10, N 6.10, S 7.06. Found: C 50.19, H 5.15, N 6.16, S 7.10%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 453.2 [M − H]+.
(Dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)sulfonylcarbamate (7a). White powder, 93% yield, m.p. 152–154 °C, Rf = 0.50 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3337, 1741, 1449, 1360, 1248, 1167. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 3.10–3.40 (m, 4H, 2 CH2-N-SO2), 3.42–3.62 (m, 4H, 2 CH2-N-CAr), 3.67 (d, 3H, J = 10.6 Hz, CH3-O), 3.75 (d, 3H, J = 10.8 Hz, CH3-O), 6.05 (d, 1H, 2JH-P = 14.0 Hz, CH*-O), 6.80–6.96 (m, 3H, H-Ar), 7.25–7.40 (m, 5H, H-Ar), 7.45–7.56 (m, 2H, H-Ar). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 46.78 (2C, NCH2), 48.90 (2C, NCH2), 54.61 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 54.62 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 70.86 (d, JC-P = 142.4 Hz, CH*-OP), 117.37 (2C), 120.93, 127.87 (2C, d, JC-P = 5 Hz), 128.57, 128.92 (2C), 129.65 (2C), 132.49, 136.81, 151.27 (d, JC-P = 12 Hz, C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 19.82. Anal. Calc. for C20H26N3O7PS: C 49.68, H 5.42, N 8.69, S 6.63. Found: C 49.73, H 5.46, N 8.65, S 6.67%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 482.3 [M − H]+.
(Diethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl(N-propylsulfamoyl)carbamate (8a). White powder, 97% yield, m.p. 151–153 °C, Rf = 0.43 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3369, 3061, 1758, 1475, 1355, 1240, 1156, 763, 697. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 0.72 (t, 3H, J = 8.8 Hz, CH3-Pr), 1.09 (t, 3H, J = 9.4 Hz, CH3-OEt), 1.12–1.27 (m, 2H, CH2-Pr), 1.37 (t, 3H, J = 9.4 Hz, CH3-OEt), 2.48–2.59 (m, 1H, CH2-N), 2.78–2.87 (m, 1H, CH2-N), 3.67–4.05 (m, 2H, CH2-OP), 4.25 (1H, m, NH), 4.74 (dq, 2H, 3JH-P = 11.8 Hz, 3JH-H = 7.5 Hz, CH2-OP), 6.00 (dd, 1H, 2JH-P = 11.3 Hz, J = 8.8 Hz, CH*-O), 7.35–7.38 (m, 3H, H-Ar), 7.50–7.52 (m, 2H, H-Ar). Anal. Calc. for C15H25N2O7PS: C 44.11, H 6.17, N 6.86, S 7.85. Found: C 44.29, H 6.79, N 6.91, S 7.80%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 409.2 [M + H]+.
(SR) and (SS)-Ethyl-2-((N-(((dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methoxy)carbonyl)sulfamoyl)amino) -4-methylpentanoate (1b). White powder, 91% yield; m.p. 118–120 °C, Rf = 0.39 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3274, 1747 (l), 1470, 1371, 1251, 1164. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 0.81–0.87 (m, 12H, CH3-CHisop), 1.05–1.35 (m, 6H, O-CH2-CH3), 1.36–1.60 (m, 4H, 2CHisop+ 1CH2-CHisop), 1.20 (m, 2H, 1CH2-CHisop), 3.51 (d, 3H, J = 10.6 Hz, CH3-O), 3.52 (d, 3H, J = 10.6 Hz, CH3-O), 3.60–3.75 (m, 1H, CH*-NH), 3.75–3.99 (m, 3H, -O-CH2-CH3 + CH*-NH), 3.78 (d, 6H, J = 10.8 Hz, CH3-O), 4.00–4.25 (m, 2H, -O-CH2-CH3), 5.79 (bs, 1H, NH-SO2), 5.96 (d, 1H, J = 13.9 Hz, CH*-O), 6.00 (d, 1H, J = 14.3 Hz, CH*-O), 6.21 (bs, 1H, NH-SO2), 7.32–7.40 (m, 6H, H-Ar), 7.50-7.56 (m, 4H, H-Ar), 9.86 (bs, 1H, NH-C=O). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 14.04 (2CH3), 22.76 (4C), 24.37 (2C), 41.95(2C), 54.19 (2POCH3), 54.44 (2POCH3), 55.55 (2C), 61.63 (2OCH2), 72.13 (2C, d, JC-P = 142.4 Hz, CH*-OP), 128.03 (4C), 128.12 (2C), 128.75 (4C, d, JC-P = 5 Hz), 132.50 (2C), 150.60 (2C, d, JC-P = 2 Hz, C=O), 172.01 (2C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 21.61. Anal. Calc. for C18H29N2O9PS: C 45.00, H 6.08, N 5.83, S 6.67. Found: C 45.07, H 6.04, N 5.81, S 6.72%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 481.1 [M + H]+.
(SR) and (SS)-Ethyl-2-((N-(((dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methoxy)carbonyl)sulfamoyl)amino) -3-phenylpropanoate (2b). White powder, 94% yield; m.p. 125–127 °C, Rf = 0.41 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3279, 1744 (l), 1455, 1373, 1249, 1162. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 1.01 (t, 3H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH3-CH2-O), 1.02 (t, 3H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH3-CH2-O), 2.85–3.15 (m, 4H, CH2-Ar), 3.49 (d, 6H, J = 9.2 Hz, CH3-O), 3.82 (d, 6H, J = 9.6 Hz, CH3-O), 3.75–4.00 (m, 3H, CH*-NH + -O-CH2-CH3), 4.09–4.20 (m, 1H, CH*-NH), 4.25–4.50 (m, 3H, -O-CH2-CH3 + NH-SO2), 4.86 (s, 1H, NH-SO2), 5.97 (d, 1H, J = 13.5 Hz, CH*-O), 5.98 (d, 1H, J = 14.3 Hz, CH*-O), 7.00–7.12 (m, 2H, H-Ar), 7.11–7.41 (m, 14H, H-Ar), 7.42–7.48 (m, 4H, H-Ar). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 13.98 (2CH3), 38.99 (2CH2), 54.27 (2C, d, JC-P = 6.9 Hz, POCH3), 54.45 (2C, d, JC-P = 6.9 Hz, POCH3), 57.74 (2CH), 61.76 (2OCH2), 71.14 (2C, d, JC-P = 155.6 Hz, CH*-OP), 128.06 (4C, d, JC-P = 6 Hz), 128.09 (4C), 128.57 (4C), 128.79 (4C), 129.51 (4C, d, JC-P = 6 Hz), 132.2 (2C), 135.5 (2C), 150.69 (2C=O), 170.66 (2C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 23.42. Anal. Calc. for C21H27N2O9PS: C 49.02, H 5.29, N 5.44, S 6.23. Found: C 45.07, H 6.04, N 5.81, S 6.72%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 515.21 [M + H]+.
(SR) and (SS)-Ethyl-2-((N-(((dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methoxy)carbonyl)sulfamoyl) amino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl) propanoate (3b). White powder, 84% yield; m.p. 116–118 °C; Rf = 0.39 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3274, 1747, 1471, 1371, 1250, 1164. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 0.99 (t, 3H, J = 7.20 Hz, CH3-CH2-O), 1.06 (t, 3H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH3-CH2-O), 3.11 (d, 4H, J = 6.0 Hz, CH2-CH*), 3.30–3.50 (m, 8H, 2CH3-O + 2CH*CO), 3.82–4.00 (m, 8H, 2CH3-O + OCH2), 4.21–4.26 (m, 2H, OCH2), 6.20 (d, 2H, J = 7.8 Hz, CH*-O), 6.68–6.98 (m, 6H, H-Ar), 7.18–7.26 (m, 8H, H-Ar), 7.37–7.40 (m, 6H, H-Ar), 9.60 (bs, 2H, NH-C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 20.61. Anal. Calc. for C23H28N3O9PS: C 49.91, H 5.10, N 7.59, S 5.79. Found: C 49.97, H 5.04, N 7.68, S 5.83%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 553.21 [M]+.
(Dimethoxyphosphoryl)(phenyl)methyl ((2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl)sulfonyl)carbamate (1c). White powder; 92% yield; m.p. 123–125 °C; Rf = 0.38 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10). IR (KBr, cm−1): 3255, 1748, 1663, 1357, 1254, 1118, 757, 629; 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 3.40–3.43 (m, 2H, CH2-N), 3.61 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 8.0 Hz, CH3-OP), 3.75 (d, 3H, 3JH-P = 8.0 Hz, CH3-OP), 4.60–4.63 (m, 2H, CH2-O), 6.04 (d, 1H, 2JH-P = 12.0 Hz, CH*-OP), 7.31–7.35 (m, 3H, H-Ar), 7.37-7.39 (m, 2H, H-Ar). 13C-NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 46.58, 54.92 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 54.95 (d, JC-P = 7 Hz, POCH3), 70.76, 71.02 (d, JC-P = 171 Hz, CH*-OP), 127.93 (2C, d, JC-P = 3 Hz), 128.75, 128.99 (2C, d, JC-P = 2 Hz), 133.52, 155.06 (C=O), 155.12 (d, JC-P = 12 Hz, C=O). 31P-NMR (161.98 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 18.93. Anal. Calc. for C13H17N2O9PS: C 38.24, H 4.20, N 6.86, S 7.85. Found: C 38.20, H 4.25, N 6.89, S 7.81%. ESI-MS: (m/z) = 431.5 [M + Na]+.

3.3. Determination of In Vitro Antibacterial Activity

The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Serial dilutions of the tested compounds in acetone were made in a concentration range from 0.5 to 512 µg/mL. All tests were performed in triplicate.
Firstly, compounds 1a7a and 1b were screened for antibacterial activity by using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar plates. The medium was poured into Petri plates and allowed to solidify. These plates were inoculated with a bacterial inoculum prepared in physiologically sterile water with an OD of about 0.08. Sterilized disks of 6 mm (Schleicher and Schule, Germany) were each impregnated with 20 µL of different concentrations of the compounds and were deposited on the plates. The latter were then left at room temperature for 2 h and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The diameters of the inhibition zones (mm) were measured in accordance with the recommendations of the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI 2017) [32]. For each bacterial strain, the best inhibition zone obtained was reported in Table 4.
Secondly, the MIC values were determined by the dilution broth method following the procedure recommended by the CLSI [32]. The serial dilutions of compounds, ranging from concentrations of 0.5 to 512 μg/mL, T were inoculated with fresh bacterial inoculums and then incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The MIC value was considered as the lowest concentration showing visual inhibition of growth. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprime (Bio-Rad, Marseille, France) was used as the positive control (CMI = 25 µg/mL). Disks embedded with acetone were used as a negative one.

4. Conclusions

In summary, 12 new and original sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates were synthesized and fully characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds 1a7a and 1b were screened for in vitro evaluation as a proof of concept for designing new antibacterial agents containing both sulfamido and phosphonate moieties. Standard strains were chosen according to the screening protocol including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which represent micro-organisms associated with important infections. All compounds showed promising in vitro antibacterial activity. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that our derivatives have more antibacterial effects on Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive ones except for compound 1b (R1=CH3, R2=CH(iBu)COOEt, R3=H). This latter is the only one active on both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 1a (R1=CH3, R2=Bn, R3=H) had more pronounced activity against P. aeruginosa, whereas compound 4a (R1=CH3, R2=3-F-C6H4, R3=H) had more activity on E. coli. Antibacterial effects will be investigated in further studies to explain the susceptibility of bacteria to our compounds. Further pharmacomodulation efforts are in progress to explore the impact of new substituents on the phenyl moiety and thereby will offer new expectations for sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates as novel antibacterial agents.

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary materials are available on line.

Author Contributions

A.B., K.B., and B.B. synthesized all compounds presented in this article; J.L. and C.M. contributed to the identification of all synthesized products by NMR and MS; I.B. and H.B. performed the bioassays of compounds; Z.B., C.M., and M.L.B. wrote and revised the paper; J.L. revised the paper; M.B. started the project, designed the molecules, and wrote and revised the paper.


APC was sponsored by MDPI. This research received no external funding.


This work was financially supported by The General Directorate for Scientific Research and Technological Development (DG-RSDT), Algerian Ministry of Scientific Research, Applied Organic Chemistry Laboratory (FNR 2000).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Spillane, W.; Malaubier, J.-B. Sulfamic acid and its N- and O-substituted derivatives. Chem. Rev. 2014, 114, 2507–2586. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Winum, J.Y.; Scozzafava, A.; Montero, J.L.; Supuran, C.T. Therapeutic potential of sulfamides as enzyme inhibitors. Med. Res. Rev. 2006, 26, 767–792. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Reitz, A.B.; Smith, G.R.; Parker, M.H. The role of sulfamide derivatives in medicinal chemistry: A patent review (2006–2008). Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 2009, 19, 1449–1453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Berredjem, H.; Reggami, Y.; Benlaifa, M.; Berredjem, M.; Bouzerna, N. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-sulfonamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Pharm. 2015, 11, 226–235. [Google Scholar]
  5. Suthagar, K.; Fairbanks, A.J. Synthesis and anti-mycobacterial activity of glycosyl sulfamides of arabinofuranose. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 14, 1748–1754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Villalba, M.L.; Enrique, A.V.; Higgs, J.; Castaño, R.A.; Goicoechea, S.; Taborda, F.D.; Gavernet, L.; Lick, I.D.; Marder, M.; Bruno Blanch, L.E. Novel sulfamides and sulfamates derived from amino esters: Synthetic studies and anticonvulsant activity. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2016, 774, 55–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Becheker, I.; Berredjem, H.; Boufas, W.; Berredjem, M. The antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of four new sulfonamides against clinical Gram-negative bacteria. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2016, 39, 125–133. [Google Scholar]
  8. Berrino, E.; Bua, S.; Mori, M.; Botta, M.; Murthy, V.S.; Vijayakumar, V.; Tamboli, Y.; Bartolucci, G.; Mugelli, A.; Cerbai, E.; et al. Novel sulfamide-containing compounds as selective carbonic anhydrase I inhibitors. Molecules 2017, 22, 1049. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Juna, J.H.; Kumarb, V.; Dexheimerc, T.S.; Wedlichd, I.; Nicklausd, M.C.; Pommierc, Y.; Malhotra, S.V. Synthesis, anti-cancer screening and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) inhibition activity of novel piperidinyl sulfamides. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2018, 111, 337–348. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Anderson, K.K.; Barton, D.H.; Ollis, R.; Jones, W.D. Sulfonic Acids and Their Derivatives in Comprehensive Organic Chemistry; Pergamon Press: Oxford, UK, 1979; Volume 3, pp. 331–340. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cano, C.; Paez, J.A.; Goya, P.; Serrano, A.; Pavon, J.; Rodriguez de Fonseca, F.; Suardiaz, M.; Martin, M.I. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of sulfamide-based analogues of anandamide. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2009, 44, 4889–4895. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  12. Supuran, C.T.; Casini, A.; Mastrolorenzo, A.; Scozzafava, A. COX-2 selective inhibitors, carbonic anhydrase inhibition and anticancer properties of sulfonamides belonging to this class of pharmacological agents. Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 2004, 4, 625–632. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Abbate, F.; Casini, A.; Owa, T.; Scozzafava, A.; Supuran, C.T. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: E7070, a sulfonamide anticancer agent, potently inhibits cytosolic isozymes I and II, and transmembrane, tumor-associated isozyme IX. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2004, 14, 217–223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Swain, N.A.; Batchelor, D.; Beaudoin, S.; Bechle, B.M.; Bradley, P.A.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, B.; Butcher, K.J.; Butt, R.P.; Chapman, M.L.; et al. Discovery of clinical candidate 4-[2-(5-amino-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4-chlorophenoxy]-5-chloro-2-fluoro-N-1,3-thiazol-4-ylbenzenesulfonamide (PF-05089771): Design and optimization of diaryl ether aryl sulfonamides as selective inhibitors of NaV1.7. J. Med. Chem. 2017, 60, 7029–7042. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Abdoli, M.; Angeli, A.; Bozdag, M.; Carta, F.; Kakanejadifard, A.; Saeidian, H.; Supuran, C.T. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase I, II, VII, and IX inhibition studies with a series of benzo[d]thiazole-5- and 6-sulfonamides. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2017, 32, 1071–1078. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Mojica, S.A.; Salin, O.; Bastidas, R.J.; Sunduru, N.; Hedenström, M.; Andersson, C.D.; Otero, C.N.; Engström, P.; Valdivia, R.H.; Elofsson, M.; Gylfe, A. N-acylated derivatives of sulfamethoxazole block Chlamydia fatty acid synthesis and interact with FabF. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2017, 61, e00716-17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Biasone, A.; Tortorella, P.; Campestre, C.; Agamennone, M.; Preziuso, S.; Chiappini, M.; Nuti, E.; Carelli, P.; Rossello, A.; Mazza, F.; et al. α-Biphenylsulfonylamino 2-methylpropyl phosphonates: Enantioselective synthesis and selective inhibition of MMPs. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2007, 15, 791–799. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Kim, D.K.; Young, J.; Lee, H.; Park, J.; Minh Thai, K. Synthesis and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitory activity of new sildenafil analogues containing a phosphonate group in the 5′-sulfonamide moiety of phenyl ring. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2004, 14, 2099–2103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Holmes, C.P.; Li, X.; Pan, Y.; Xu, C.; Bhandari, A.; Moody, C.M.; Miguel, J.A.; Ferla, S.W.; De Francisco, M.N.; Frederick, B.T.; et al. Discovery and structure–activity relationships of novel sulfonamides as potent PTP1B inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2005, 15, 4336–4341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Watkins, W.J.; Cho, A. Preparation of Phosphonate Derivatives of Mycophenolic Acid as Anticancer, Antiviral and Anti-Inflammatory Agents. WO2006047661, 4 May 2006. [Google Scholar]
  21. Timmler, H.; Wegler, R.; Unterstenhafer, G. Procédé de Fabrication de Dérivés Phosphorylés de Sulfonyle Urethanes. FR1,403,523A, 18 June 1965. [Google Scholar]
  22. Winum, J.Y.; Bouissiere, J.L.; Passagne, I.; Evrard, A.; Montero, V.; Cuq, P.; Montero, J.L. Synthesis and biological evaluation of fotemustine analogues on human melanoma cell lines. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2003, 38, 319–324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Bartzatt, R.; Cirillo, S.L.; Cirillo, J.D. Sulfonamide agents for treatment of Staphylococcus MRSA and MSSA infections of the central nervous system. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem. 2010, 10, 84–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Sköld, O. Sulfonamide resistance: Mechanisms and trends. Drug Resist. Updates 2000, 3, 155–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Huovinen, P. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2001, 32, 1608–1614. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  26. Karageorgopoulos, D.E.; Wang, R.; Yu, X.H.; Falagas, M.E. Fosfomycin: Evaluation of the published evidence on the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2012, 67, 255–268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Rossolini, G.M.; Mantengoli, E. Antimicrobial resistance in Europe and its potential impact on empirical therapy. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2008, 14 (Suppl. 6), 2–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  28. Cheloufi, H.; Berredjem, M.; Boufas, W.; Bouchareb, F.; Aouf, N.E. Efficient synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of novel N-acylsulfonamides and sulfonylureas. Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 2014, 189, 1396–1404. [Google Scholar]
  29. Boufas, W.; Cheloufi, H.; Bouchareb, F.; Berredjem, M.; Aouf, N.E. Convenient synthesis of novel N-acylsulfonamides containing phosphonates moiety. Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 2015, 190, 103–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Bouchareb, F.; Berredjem, M.; Ait Kaki, S.; Bouaricha, A.; Bouzina, A.; Belhani, B.; Aouf, N.E. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of new chiral N-sulfamoyloxazolidin-2-ones. J. Chem. Sci. 2016, 128, 85–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Bouzina, A.; Grib, I.; Bechlem, K.; Belhani, B.; Aouf, N.E.; Berredjem, M. Efficient synthesis of novel N-acylsulfonamide oxazolidin-2-ones derivatives. Karbala Int. J. Mod. Sci. 2016, 2, 98–103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 27th ed.; Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Standards M02-M07; CLSI: Wayne, PA, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  33. Sobhani, S.; Tashrifi, Z. Synthesis of α-functionalized phosphonates from α-hydroxyphosphonates. Tetrahedron 2010, 66, 1429–1439. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Bouzina, A.; Aouf, N.E.; Berredjem, M. Ultrasound assisted green synthesis of α-hydroxyphosphonates under solvent free conditions. Res. Chem. Intermed. 2016, 42, 5993–6002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Kaboudin, B.; Afsharinezhad, M.B.; Yokomatsu, T. A convenient and general procedure for the synthesis of α-ureidophosphonates under catalyst-free conditions. Arkivoc 2012, 4, 44–53. [Google Scholar]
  36. Hu, G.; Chen, W.; Ma, D.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, P.; Gao, Y.; Zhao, Y. Silver-catalyzed, aldehyde-induced α-C−H functionalization of tetrahydroisoquinolines with concurrent C−P bond formation/N-alkylation. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 81, 1704–1711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sample Availability: Samples of the synthesized compounds are available from the corresponding authors.
Figure 1. Structure of diverse sulfonamide and sulfamide derivatives containing a phosphonate-type group.
Figure 1. Structure of diverse sulfonamide and sulfamide derivatives containing a phosphonate-type group.
Molecules 23 01682 g001
Figure 2. Structures of drugs approved for human use.
Figure 2. Structures of drugs approved for human use.
Molecules 23 01682 g002
Figure 3. General formula of studied compounds.
Figure 3. General formula of studied compounds.
Molecules 23 01682 g003
Scheme 1. Synthesis of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1a8a from primary or secondary amines.
Scheme 1. Synthesis of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1a8a from primary or secondary amines.
Molecules 23 01682 sch001
Scheme 2. Synthesis of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1b3b from amino acid esters.
Scheme 2. Synthesis of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1b3b from amino acid esters.
Molecules 23 01682 sch002
Scheme 3. Synthesis of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate 1c from oxazolidin-2-one.
Scheme 3. Synthesis of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate 1c from oxazolidin-2-one.
Molecules 23 01682 sch003
Table 1. The physical data and yields for sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1a8a synthesized from primary and secondary amines.
Table 1. The physical data and yields for sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1a8a synthesized from primary and secondary amines.
Entry-NR2R3Target MoleculeYield %m.p. °C
1a Molecules 23 01682 i001 Molecules 23 01682 i00299131–133
2a Molecules 23 01682 i003 Molecules 23 01682 i00498137–139
3a Molecules 23 01682 i005 Molecules 23 01682 i00698144–146
4a Molecules 23 01682 i007 Molecules 23 01682 i00896136–138
5a Molecules 23 01682 i009 Molecules 23 01682 i01096187–189
6a Molecules 23 01682 i011 Molecules 23 01682 i01294153–155
7a Molecules 23 01682 i013 Molecules 23 01682 i01493152–154
8a Molecules 23 01682 i015 Molecules 23 01682 i01697151–153
Table 2. Physical data and yields for sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1b3b synthesized from amino acid esters.
Table 2. Physical data and yields for sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates 1b3b synthesized from amino acid esters.
EntryR4Target MoleculeYieldm.p. °C
1b Molecules 23 01682 i017 Molecules 23 01682 i01891118–120
2b Molecules 23 01682 i019 Molecules 23 01682 i02094125–127
3b Molecules 23 01682 i021 Molecules 23 01682 i02284116–118
Table 3. Physical data and yield for the sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate 1c synthesized from oxazolidin-2-one.
Table 3. Physical data and yield for the sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate 1c synthesized from oxazolidin-2-one.
EntryTarget MoleculeYield %m.p. °C
1c Molecules 23 01682 i02392123–125
Table 4. Diameters of the inhibition zone (DIZ) of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate derivatives 1a7a, 1b, and SXT toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Table 4. Diameters of the inhibition zone (DIZ) of sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate derivatives 1a7a, 1b, and SXT toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
MoleculesDiameters of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) in mm a
Bacterial Strains 1a2a3a4a5a6a7a1bSXT
S. aureus ATCC 25923151614121512131322
S. aureus 1161514R b1813141220
S. aureus 2161516R1615121318
S. aureus 3171415R1714131518
E. coli ATCC 25922242325252321231820
E. coli 1172218202020191818
E. coli 2221924242218232018
E. coli 3202223221918201720
P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853262018231919201817
P. aeruginosa 12420201818201820R
P. aeruginosa 2261920202019181720
P. aeruginosa 325212122222119R18
K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603221913201920211922
K. pneumoniae 12221182515181915R
K. pneumoniae 220211725201816R17
K. pneumoniae 32018182419192221R
a All tests were performed in triplicate. b R: Resistant.
Table 5. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate derivatives 1a7a and 1b toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Table 5. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonate derivatives 1a7a and 1b toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
MoleculesMIC (µg/mL) a
Bacterial Strains 1a2a3a4a5a6a7a1b
S. aureus ATCC 2592312812825651225612825615
S. aureus 1128256256R b6412825615
S. aureus 264128128R1286412818
S. aureus 364128128R12812812815
E. coli ATCC 259221220.522818
E. coli 13216164816418
E. coli 241620.5416820
E. coli 3832411643217
P. aeruginosa ATCC 278530.514221418
P. aeruginosa 10.522422220
P. aeruginosa 2122442817
P. aeruginosa 30.5612244R
K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603432256161281283219
K. pneumoniae 14643221286412815
K. pneumoniae 281616232128128R
K. pneumoniae 3816324128646421
a All tests were performed in triplicate and STX was used as the positive control (MIC = 25 µg/mL). b R: Resistant.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Bouzina, A.; Bechlem, K.; Berredjem, H.; Belhani, B.; Becheker, I.; Lebreton, J.; Le Borgne, M.; Bouaziz, Z.; Marminon, C.; Berredjem, M. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Functionalized Sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates. Molecules 2018, 23, 1682.

AMA Style

Bouzina A, Bechlem K, Berredjem H, Belhani B, Becheker I, Lebreton J, Le Borgne M, Bouaziz Z, Marminon C, Berredjem M. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Functionalized Sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates. Molecules. 2018; 23(7):1682.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bouzina, Abdeslem, Khaoula Bechlem, Hajira Berredjem, Billel Belhani, Imène Becheker, Jacques Lebreton, Marc Le Borgne, Zouhair Bouaziz, Christelle Marminon, and Malika Berredjem. 2018. "Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Functionalized Sulfamidocarbonyloxyphosphonates" Molecules 23, no. 7: 1682.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop