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Open AccessArticle

Cellulose Nanofiber Biotemplated Palladium Composite Aerogels

1
Department of Chemistry and Life Science, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10996, USA
2
Department of Mathematical Sciences, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10996, USA
3
Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Brigitte Jamart-Grégoire
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061405
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Aerogels and Their Applications)
Noble metal aerogels offer a wide range of catalytic applications due to their high surface area and tunable porosity. Control over monolith shape, pore size, and nanofiber diameter is desired in order to optimize electronic conductivity and mechanical integrity for device applications. However, common aerogel synthesis techniques such as solvent mediated aggregation, linker molecules, sol–gel, hydrothermal, and carbothermal reduction are limited when using noble metal salts. Here, we present the synthesis of palladium aerogels using carboxymethyl cellulose nanofiber (CNF) biotemplates that provide control over aerogel shape, pore size, and conductivity. Biotemplate hydrogels were formed via covalent cross linking using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) with a diamine linker between carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibers. Biotemplate CNF hydrogels were equilibrated in precursor palladium salt solutions, reduced with sodium borohydride, and rinsed with water followed by ethanol dehydration, and supercritical drying to produce freestanding aerogels. Scanning electron microscopy indicated three-dimensional nanowire structures, and X-ray diffractometry confirmed palladium and palladium hydride phases. Gas adsorption, impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were correlated to determine aerogel surface area. These self-supporting CNF-palladium aerogels demonstrate a simple synthesis scheme to control porosity, electrical conductivity, and mechanical robustness for catalytic, sensing, and energy applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerogels; palladium; porous; nanomaterials; catalysis aerogels; palladium; porous; nanomaterials; catalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burpo, F.J.; Mitropoulos, A.N.; Nagelli, E.A.; Palmer, J.L.; Morris, L.A.; Ryu, M.Y.; Wickiser, J.K. Cellulose Nanofiber Biotemplated Palladium Composite Aerogels. Molecules 2018, 23, 1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061405

AMA Style

Burpo FJ, Mitropoulos AN, Nagelli EA, Palmer JL, Morris LA, Ryu MY, Wickiser JK. Cellulose Nanofiber Biotemplated Palladium Composite Aerogels. Molecules. 2018; 23(6):1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061405

Chicago/Turabian Style

Burpo, Fred J.; Mitropoulos, Alexander N.; Nagelli, Enoch A.; Palmer, Jesse L.; Morris, Lauren A.; Ryu, Madeline Y.; Wickiser, J. K. 2018. "Cellulose Nanofiber Biotemplated Palladium Composite Aerogels" Molecules 23, no. 6: 1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061405

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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