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Open AccessArticle

Profile of Polyphenolic and Essential Oil Composition of Polish Propolis, Black Poplar and Aspens Buds

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Wrocław Medical University, 50556 Wrocław, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50375 Wrocław, Poland
3
Department of Biotechnology, Wrocław University, 51148 Wrocław, Poland
4
Department of Microbiology, Wrocław Medical University, 50368 Wrocław, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061262
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
In this work, we studied similarities and differences between 70% ethanol in water extract (70EE) and essential oils (EOs) obtained from propolis, black poplars (Populus nigra L.) and aspens (P. tremula L.) to ascertain which of these is a better indicator of the plant species used by bees to collect propolis precursors. Composition of 70EE was analyzed by UPLC-PDA-MS, while GC-MS was used to research the EOs. Principal component analyses (PCA) and calculations of Spearman’s coefficient rank were used for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis exhibited correlation between chemical compositions of propolis and Populus buds’ 70EE. In the case of EOs, results were less clear. Compositions of black poplars, aspens EOs and propolises have shown more variability than 70EE. Different factors such as higher instability of EOs compared to 70EE, different degradation pattern of benzyl esters to benzoic acid, differences in plant metabolism and bees’ preferences may be responsible for these phenomena. Our research has therefore shown that 70EE of propolis reflected the composition of P. nigra or complex aspen–black poplar origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee glue; poplars; principal component analysis (PCA); essential oils (EOs); bee glue’s polyphenols bee glue; poplars; principal component analysis (PCA); essential oils (EOs); bee glue’s polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okińczyc, P.; Szumny, A.; Szperlik, J.; Kulma, A.; Franiczek, R.; Żbikowska, B.; Krzyżanowska, B.; Sroka, Z. Profile of Polyphenolic and Essential Oil Composition of Polish Propolis, Black Poplar and Aspens Buds. Molecules 2018, 23, 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061262

AMA Style

Okińczyc P, Szumny A, Szperlik J, Kulma A, Franiczek R, Żbikowska B, Krzyżanowska B, Sroka Z. Profile of Polyphenolic and Essential Oil Composition of Polish Propolis, Black Poplar and Aspens Buds. Molecules. 2018; 23(6):1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okińczyc, Piotr; Szumny, Antoni; Szperlik, Jakub; Kulma, Anna; Franiczek, Roman; Żbikowska, Beata; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Sroka, Zbigniew. 2018. "Profile of Polyphenolic and Essential Oil Composition of Polish Propolis, Black Poplar and Aspens Buds" Molecules 23, no. 6: 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061262

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