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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051152

Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
2
PhD Program in Drug Discovery and Development, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, I-80131 Napoli, Italy
4
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80131 Napoli, Italy
5
European Biomedical Research Institute of Salerno, Via De Renzi 50, I-84125 Salerno, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicola Marchetti
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract

Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS) and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min) and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm) tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; DIMS; DPPH; FT-ICR; Spirulina; UHPLC carotenoids; DIMS; DPPH; FT-ICR; Spirulina; UHPLC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sommella, E.; Conte, G.M.; Salviati, E.; Pepe, G.; Bertamino, A.; Ostacolo, C.; Sansone, F.; Prete, F.D.; Aquino, R.P.; Campiglia, P. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay. Molecules 2018, 23, 1152.

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